Z94.15 - Organization Planning and Theory

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IDENTIFICATION. The achievement of a general attitude within a company whereby employees recognize the common goals they have with the company.

INCENTIVE. A stimulus which induces action. Any inducement, material or nonmaterial, which impels or encourages a person to behave in a certain way.

INCENTIVE PLAN. A designed program for rewarding individuals or groups for achieving and exceeding performance goals.

INFORMATION. (1) The content of any meaningful communication. (2) In information theory, information refers to a quantitative measure of the amount of order and certainty which exists in a dynamic information system, without reference to the semantic content of the symbols involved.

INFORMAL GROUP. A group that emerges through the efforts of individuals to satisfy personal needs not provided for by the formal organization.

INFORMATION THEORY. A study of the quantity of information contained in a message, and also the capacity of a communications channel to transmit information.

INPUT. That which is put in; in the organizational context usually taken to mean any resource allocation to a system.

INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS. A matrix which provides a quantitative framework for the description of an economic unit. Basic input-output analysis is a unique set of input-output ratios for each production and distribution process. If the ratios of inputs per unit of output are known for all production processes, and if the total production of each end product of the economy, or of that section being studied is known, it is possible to compute precisely the production levels required at every intermediate stage to supply the total sum of end products. Further, it is possible to determine the effect at every point in the production process of a specified change in the volume and mix of end products. Also forms the basis for most measures of organizational productivity; i.e., the ratio of a measure of output to a specific input (or to a group of inputs).

INSTITUTIONAL/TRANSFORMATIVE LEADERSHIP. A social influence approach to guiding and directing organizations in which the leader personifies of transforms values and visions and inspires others without having to communicate directly.

INTEGRATION. How the differentiated parts of a system are coordinated to ensure their contribution to the organization as a whole.

INTERACTION. Virtually any behavior resulting from interpersonal relationships. In human relations it includes all forms of communication, verbal and nonverbal, conscious and unconscious. Interactions speak louder than words.

INTERDISCIPLINARY NATURE. Organizational behavior borrows its core concepts from the three major behavioral-science disciplines and applies principles from the social sciences as well.

INTERFACE. Jargon from the aerospace industry and systems engineering, used both as a noun and a verb to describe one or more interactions. It is commonly used in describing work-related interactions among groups.

INTERVENTION. A planned process of introducing change within a group or organizational, initiated or facilitated by a change agent with the help of its members.

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