Z94.14 - Operations & Inventory Planning & Control

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M-DAY CALENDAR. (See MANUFACTURING CALENDER.)

MACHINE LOADING. The accumulation by workstation, machine, or machine group of the hours generated from the scheduling of operations for released orders by time period. Machine loading differs from capacity planning in that it does not use the planned orders from MRP but operates solely from scheduled receipts. (See CAPACITY REQUIREMENTS PLANNING.)

MACHINE UTILIZATION. The percent of the available time that the machine is being operated.

MAJOR SET-UP. The machine set-up and related activities required when one or more items within a group of items is ordered. (See MINOR SET-UP TIME.)

MAKE-OR-BUY DECISION. The act of deciding whether to produce an item in-house or buy it from an outside vendor.

MAKE-TO-ORDER PRODUCT. An end item is finished after receipt of a customer order. Frequently, long lead time components are planned prior to the order arriving in order to reduce the delivery time to the customer. (See ASSEMBLE-TO-ORDER PRODUCT.)

MAKE-TO-STOCK PRODUCT. End items shipped from finished goods, "off the shelf," and, therefore, finished prior to a customer order arriving.

MANUAL RESCHEDULING. The most common method of rescheduling open orders (scheduled receipts). Under this method the MRP system provides information on the part numbers and order numbers that need to be rescheduled. Due dates and/or order quantity changes required are then analyzed and changed by material planners or other authorized persons. (See AUTOMATIC RESCHEDULING.)

MANUFACTURING CALENDAR. A system where only the working days are numbered so that the component and work order scheduling may be done based on the actual number of work days available. Syn: M-day calendar.

MANUFACTURING LEAD TIME. The total time required to manufacture an item. Included are order, preparation, queue, set-up, run, move time, inspection, and put-away times.

MANUFACTURING ORDER. A document or group of documents conveying authority for the manufacture of specified parts or products in specified quantities.

MANUFACTURING RESOURCE PLANNING (MRP II). A method for the effective planning of all the resources of a manufacturing company. Ideally, it addresses operational planning in units, financial planning in dollars, and has a simulation capability to answer "what if" questions. It is made up of a variety of functions, each linked together: Business Planning, Production Planning, Master Production Scheduling, Material Requirements Planning, Capacity Requirements Planning and the execution systems for capacity and priority decisions. Outputs from these systems would be integrated with financial reports such as the business plan, purchase commitment report, shipping budget, inventory projections in dollars, etc. Manufacturing resource planning is a direct outgrowth and extension of MRP. (See CLOSED LOOP MRP.)

MARKET HEDGE. (See HEDGE.)

MASTER PRODUCTION SCHEDULE (MPS). A statement of what the company expects to manufacture by item. It is the anticipated build schedule for those items assigned to the master scheduler. The master scheduler maintains this schedule and, in turn, it becomes a set of planning numbers which is an input to MRP. It represents what the company plans to produce expressed in specific configurations, quantities, and dates. The MPS should not be confused with a sales forecast which represents a demand statement. The master production schedule must take forecast plus other important considerations (backlog, availability of material, availability of capacity, management policy and goals, etc.) into account prior to determining the best manufacturing strategy. (See CLOSED LOOP MRP.) Syn: master schedule.

MASTER SCHEDULE. (See MASTER PRODUCTION SCHEDULE.)

MASTER SCHEDULE ITEM. A part selected to be planned by the master scheduler. This item is critical in terms of its impact on lower level components and/or resources such as skilled labor, key machines, dollars, etc. A master schedule item may be an end item, a component, a pseudo number or a planning bill of material.

MASTER SCHEDULER. The job title of the person who manages the master production schedule. The person should have substantial product and shop knowledge because master scheduling impacts facility performance.

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PLANNING (MRP). A system which uses bills of material, inventory and open order data, and master production schedule information to calculate requirements for materials. It makes recommendations to release replenishment orders to insure availability of materials. Further, since it is time-phased, it makes recommendations to reschedule open orders when due dates and need dates are not in phase. Originally seen as merely a better way to order inventory, today it is thought of primarily as a scheduling technique, i.e., a method for establishing and maintaining valid due dates on orders. (See CLOSED LOOP MRP, MANUFACTURING RESOURCE PLANNING.)

MATERIAL REVIEW BOARD (MRB). An organization within a company, often a standing committee, which has the job of determining disposition of items which have questionable quality or other attributes.

MATERIALS HANDLING TIME. The time necessary to move material from one work center to the next work center. This includes waiting for the material handling equipment and actual movement time.

MATERIALS MANAGEMENT. The grouping of management functions related to the complete cycle of material flow including purchasing, planning and controlling of work-in-process warehousing, shipping, and distributing finished product. Differs from materials control in that the latter term is associated with the internal control of production materials.

MATRIX BILL OF MATERIAL. A chart made up from the bills of material for a number of products in the same or similar families. It is arranged in a matrix with parts in columns and assemblies in rows (or vice versa) so that requirements for common components can be summarized conveniently.

MINIMUM ORDER QUANTITY. An order quantity modifier, applied after the lot size has been calculated, that increases the order quantity to a pre-established minimum.

MIN-MAX SYSTEM. A type of order point replenishment system used on a fixed-interval, periodic-review basis. The "min" is the order point, and the "max" is the "order-up-to" inventory level. The order  quantity is variable, and is the "max" minus available and on order inventory when the latter two are below the "min."

MINOR SET-UP TIME. The incremental preparation activities required when processing other than the first item within a group of items. These are the machine adjustments and related activities required for each item within the group. (See MAJOR SET-UP.)

MODULAR BILL OF MATERIAL. A type of planning bill which is arranged in product modules or options. Often used in companies where the product has many optional features, e.g., automobiles. (See PLANNING BILL OF MATERIAL, COMMON PARTS BILL OF MATERIAL, SUPER BILL OF MATERIAL, OPTION.)

MOVE TICKET. A document used in dispatching to authorize or record movement of a job from one work center to another. It may also be used to report other information such as the active quantity or the material storage location. MPS. (See MASTER PRODUCTION SCHEDULE.)

MRP. (See MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PLANNING.)

MRP II. (See MANUFACTURING RESOURCE PLANNING.)

MULTI-LEVEL BILL OF MATERIAL. Shows all the components that are directly used in an assembly together with the quantity required of every component. If a component is a sub-assembly, all the components of the sub-assembly will also be exhibited in the multi-level bill.

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