Z94.9 Human Factors (Ergonomics) Engineering

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EARCON. Auditory display symbol, in analogy to visual icon.

ECHO. Computer interface in which commands are reflected on the display.

ECOLOGICAL. Pertaining to the environment for a particular organism.

ECOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY. Study of the interaction of organisms and environments.

ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY. Originally a measure of cue validity in a judgement task, now the degree of correspondence between laboratory conditions and the target environment to which laboratory results are intended to generalize.

EDIT. Alter data in a computer file, as in wordprocessing.

EMERGENT FEATURE. A perceptible feature on a graphical display whose existence owes to a relational property between primitive display elements.   

EMPTY FIELD MYOPIA. The normal accommodation of the eye for near, rather than far, vision when viewing a homogeneous field such as an empty sky.

ENERGY EXPENDITURE. The amount of energy used during activity or rest. Usually expressed in calories per unit time.

ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY. One of several terms used to define approximately the same discipline. Other terms are human factors, human factors engineering, and ergonomics. Ergonomics is used predominantly outside the U.S.A.; the others predominantly within. The aim of the discipline is the evaluation and design of facilities, environments, jobs, training methods and equipment to match the capabilities of users and workers. Exact definition of these terms or the scope of work is improbable. (See ERGONOMICS.)

ERGOMETER. A device for measuring the energy output of human muscular work; for example, a stationary bicycle.

ERGONOMICS. The application of a body of knowledge (life sciences, physical science, engineering, psychology, etc.) dealing with the interactions between man and the total working environment, such as atmosphere, heat, light and sound, as well as all tools and equipment of the workplace.

ERROR, CONSTANT. Deviation from true value or established standard due to factors remaining unchanged during the series of measurements.

ERROR, VARIABLE. Deviation from true value or established standard due to random factors that affect each measurement separately.

ETIOLOGY. Study of the causes of disease; in Human Factors, study of the causes of human error over its time course.

EXPERT. An individual who has acquired special skill in, or knowledge of, a particular subject through professional training or practical experience.

EXPERT SYSTEM. A computer program typically containing knowledge derived from human expertise in a particular area of knowledge. 


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