Z94.12.4 Metal Forming

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HAMMERING. Beating metal sheet into a desired shape either over a form or on a high-speed mechanical hammer, in which the sheet is moved between a small curved hammer and a similar anvil to produce the required dishing or thinning.

HARDNESS. Defined in terms of the method of measurement. (1) Usually the resistance to indentation. (2) Stiffness or temper of wrought products.

HEAT TREATMENT. A combination of heating and cooling operations, timed and applied to a metal or alloy in the solid state in a way that will produce desired properties.

HEMMING. A bend of 180° made in two steps: First, a sharp-angle bend is made; next, the bend is closed by means of a flat punch and a die.

HOLE FLANGING. Turning up or drawing out a flange or rim around a hole (usually round) in the bottom or side of a shell or in a flat plate. It is essentially the reverse of necking.

HOOKER PROCESS. A process of cold extrusion in a crank press, employed in making small arms cartridge cases and small thin-walled seamless tubes.

HOT FORMING. Working operations such as bending and drawing sheet and plate, forging, pressing, and heading, performed on metal heated to a temperature above room temperature.

HOT PRESSING. The simultaneous forming and heating of a compact.

HOT WORKING. Plastic deformation of metal at such a temperature and rate that strain hardening does not occur. The lower limit of temperature for this process is the recrystallization temperature.

HYDRAULIC PRESS BRAKE. A press brake with the ram actuated directly by hydraulic cylinder.

HYDRAULIC SHEAR. A shear with its crosshead actuated by hydraulic cylinders.

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