Z94.2 - Anthropometry & Biomechanics: Anthropometry Section

Intro to Anthropometry | Dynamic/Functional Dimension Terms | Static Dimension Terms | Reference Plates | Glossary

Cross Reference List | Primary Bibliography | Secondary Bibliography


Editorial Note: Definitions in this section are treated differently from those in the other sections, with a diagrammatic instead of strictly alphabetical listing. Anthropometry terms can be found alphabetically in the overall index. When a term is indexed as being in the Anthropometry section, the reader should refer to at least one – if not all – of the three listings in this chapter: Dimensional Terminology, Plate List, and Cross Reference List. The reader should also refer to the Glossary.





Air Standardization Coordinating Committee.  " A Basis for Common Practices and Goals in the Conduct of Anthropometric Surveys", Air Standard 61/83, September, 1991.  The Air Standard provides standard practice and definitions for the conduct of anthropometric surveys such as:  posture definition, measuring techniques, accuracy, definition of standard body marks, and definition of  a set of anthropometric measurements and background information that should be collected in an anthropometric survey.  It as a primary source of the dimensions and definitions used in this document.

Bittner, A. "A Family of Manikins for Workstation Design", NAEC-TR-2100-07B, 1986.  This paper describes a method involving the use of a hypothetical sample of individuals having extreme dimensions on one or a combination of variables.

Damon, A., Stoudt, H.W. and McFarland, R.a. The Human Body in Equipment Design.  Cambridge:  Havard University Press, 1966.  A primary source from which dimensions were chosen for the standard.   The chapter on "Anthropometry and Human Engineering" presents data on 37 dimensions, the data base from which is available military and civilian studies including the National Health Survey data of 1960-1962.  Explanations accompanying the dimensions include examples applicable to specific equipment design.  General discussion provides guidelines for selecting minimum or maximum values and a consideration of  factors affecting individual variability.  Other dimensions types discussed and illustrated are circumferences, functional dimensions, and center of gravity measurements.  In additional to the chapter on anthropometry are sections on biomechanics and equipment design, control design, hand and foot controls, and seat design.

Heady, K.C. "Aircrew/Cockpit Compatibility:  A Multivariate Problem Seeking a Multivariate Solution,"  AGARD Conference Proceedings No. 491, April 1990.  This paper describes situations where the operator or maintainer must simultaneously perform two or more different actions in such a way that they interact and suggests that multivariate techniques be used to verify accommodation.  This paper explains one method to verify accommodation, individuals with extreme combinations of body proportions are used:  tall torso with short limbs, short torso with long limbs, etc.

Hertzbert, H.T.E. " Chapter 11:  Engineering Anthropology" in Human Engineering Guide to Equipment Design, edited by Harold P. Van Cott and Robert G. Kinkade.  Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office Superintendent of Documents, 972.  A primary source from which dimensions were chosen for inclusion in the standard, "Engineering Anthropology" presents tabular data of male and female, military and civilian studies as well as international data (where available) for 39 static dimensions.  The use of anthropometry is clarified with specific guidelines for the choice of percentiles for a given design problem.  Variability of military and national groups is discussed.  Data for functional dimensions as well as the discussion of factors affecting muscle capacity give the reader a perspective for interpretation and use of data.

McDaniel, J.W. "Models for Ergonomic Analysis and Design:  COMBIMAN and CREW CHIEF":, In Computer-Aided Ergonomics:  A Researchers Guide (Karwowski, W., Genaidy, A.M., and Asfour, S.S., Eds.).  Taylor and Francis, London, 1990.  This paper discusses COMBIMAN and CREW CHIEF computer models which can generate 3-D manikins.  These models can be dimensioned to match all the subjects in a multivariate set.  These models can be used to analyze, design, and evaluate "electronic mockups" of workplaces.

McDaniel, J.W. "the Development of Computer Models for Ergonomic Accommodation," In Workplace Equipment and Tool Design, (Mital, A. and Karwowski, W., Eds).  Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990.  This paper discusses the development of computer models which can be dimensioned in three-dimensions to match all the subjects in a multivariate set.  These models can be used to generate and evaluate "electronic mockups".

Montagu, M.F. and Ashley, A.  A Handbook of Anthropometry.  Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 1960.  A primary source from which definitions of head dimensions were chosen for inclusion in the standard, this volume is a detailed compendium on the theory, practice, and methods of anthropometry.  It considers the cephalometry and somatometry of living humans, the craniometry of  skeletal populations, postcranial osteometry, developmental assessment of the dentition, the measurement of body composition, and an unusually detailed section on references and directories for further information.

Moroney, W.F., and Smith, M.J., "Empirical Reduction in Potential User Population as the Result of Imposed Multi-variate Anthropometric Limits," Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab Oratory, NAMRL - 1164, September, 1972.  This paper discusses why univariate percentiles are not appropriate when two or more dimensions are simultaneously used as criteria for design.  They explain that percentile values reported in anthropometric surveys are suitable only for univariate accommodation and should not be used for designs where two or more dimensions are used simultaneously as design parameters; that while the means of different measures of body parts can be added, the measures away from the means (at the tails of the distribution where the 5th and 95th percentile values occur) are not additive.

Robinette, K. and McConville, J. "An Alternative to Percential Models", SAE Technical Paper Series No. 810217, 1982.  This report demonstrates the seriousness of the problems associated with the use of percentiles, and descries and compares an alternative regression approach for representing human body size variability.

Robinson, J.C., Robinette, K.M., and Zehener, G.F. "User's Guide to the Anthropometric Database at the Computerized Anthropometric Research and Design (CARD) Laboratory", AL-TR-1992-0036, Feb. 1992.  A dial-up database is now available which can be used to calculate multivariate "test cases" for a number of work-place/crew station design applications with a user's guide.


Abraham, S. Preliminary Findings of the First Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 1971-1972: Anthropometric and Clinical Findings.  Rockville, Maryland: Health Resources Administration, National Center for Health Statistics, April 1975.  This document presents preliminary findings collected on a probability sample of U.S. population by age, sex race and income level.  Data are presented on selected anthropometric measurements of children 1=17 years of age, obesity in adults 20-74 years of age, and clinical signs of possible nutritional deficiency for persons 1-74 years of age.  The particular contribution to anthropometric data is the inclusion of data by yearly intervals on height, weight, triceps skinfold, and subscapular skinfold for ages 1-17.

Bass, W. Human Oseology.  Columbia, Missouri:  Archeological Survey, 1971.  This volume is a primer in skeletal anatomy and in the anthropometry of the human skeleton.  It gives a thorough introduction to the theory and practice of anthropometry but it emphasizes the bony landmarks and is geared to the measurement, aging, sexing, and cataloguing of skeletal material found in archeological sites.

Brozek, J. Body Measurements and Human Nutrition.  Detriot:  Wayne University Press, 1956.  This edited volume considers the effect that varying degrees of nutritional status has on a battery of anthropometric measurements.  Most of the samples are drawn from the armed forces, yet, this volume also starts to consider the effects of nutritional status on the anthropometry of women.

Chapanis, A. (ed.). Ethnic Variables in Human Factors Engineering. Baltimore:  The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2975.  A diverse  reference on human factors, the book presents 18 essays from papers presented at a NATO symposium, three of which specifically deal with anthropometry: "Population differences in  dimensions, their genetic basis and their relevance to practical problems of design" by D.F. Roberts; "Anthropometric measurements on selected  populations of the world" by Robert M. White; and "International anthropometric variability and its effects on aircraft cockpit design" by Kenneth W. Kennedy.  In particular, the article by White includes statistics on weight, stature sitting height, and chest circumference for a number of populations of different countries.  Data important in the design of international products.

Churchill, E. and McConville, J.T., Sampling and Data Gathering Strategies forFuture USAF Anthropometry.  Springfield, Virginia:  National Technical Information Service 1976.  A methodology is presented for tailoring a data gathering study to the specific design needs of a project as well as a discussion of the different types of variability, necessary to the determination of  the data gathering approach needed.  Types of variability discussed are intra-individual, inter-individual, and secular variability.  The appendix includes a list of all the anthropometric dimensions available in the Aerospace Medical Research Lab Data Bank.

Clauser, C.E., Tucker, P.E., McConville, JT., Churchill, E. Laubach, L.L., and Reardon, J.A. Anthropometry of Air Force Women.  Wright -Paterson Air force Base, Ohio: Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, 1972.  A total of 137 dimensions are included with graphs representing the actual distributions of the population surveyed.  Dimension types include body lengths and heights, circumferences, weights, skinfolds, breadths and depths, body surface distances, as well as measures of the head, the hands, and the feet.  Correlation coefficients which establish the ratio of certainty by which one dimension can be determined from another are developed for all variables as well as regression equations for those variables with a moderately large intercorrelation. 

Dempster, W.T. Space Requirements of the Seated Operator:  Geometrical, Kinematic, and Mechanical Aspects of the Body with Special Reference to the Limbs.  Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio:  Wright Air Development Center, United States Air Force, 1955.  This study explores the relationships between joint "centers" and joint ranges of motion based on a subject population representing a cross section of somatotypes.  Links are defined, as a result of this study, as a proportion of the corresponding static segment length.  Links are useful to the designer and engineer in determining workspace layout as a function of potential ranges of motion.  Specifications for construction of drafting board mannequins were worked out for seated postures.

Diffrient, N., Tilley, A.R. and Bardgjy, J.C.  Humanscale 1/2/3.  Cambridge, The MIT Press, 1974.  Humanscale consists of three pictorial selectors with rotary dials correlating anthropometric data with age and body size.  Included are body and link measurements, seat and table design measurements, and some data on wheelchair users, the handicapped and the elderly.  Although the information is presented in an easily usable form, there is a drawback in this method of presentation.  Since for any given dimension, there have been numerous surveys conducted, attention needs to be given to the criteria by which one selects the data of one survey over another.  Humanscale presents no discussion on why or by what criteria they selected the data which is presented on the rotary selectors.

Dreyfuss, H. The Measure of Man.  New York:  Whitney Library of Design, 1967.  This portfolio of anthropometric data is accompanied by design specifications, bibliography, charts, and two life-size standing human figures.  It provides male and female, seated and standing dimensions.

Gordon, C.C., Brandtwiller, B., Churchill, T., Clauser, C>E., McConville, J.T., Tebbetts, I., Walker, R.A. Anthropometric Suvey of U.S. Army Personnel:  Methods and Summary Statistics.  Natick/TR-89/044.  Natick, M.A.; U.S. Army Natick, R, D, and E Cente, 1989.  Most recent human engineering data collected on U.S. populations; extensive descriptions, photos of landmarks and measurements; appendix indicating usefulness of various dimensions for specific engineering applications.

Hrdlicka, A. Anthropometry.  Philadelphia:  This Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1920.  This volume is another detailed primer on the measurement of humans.  It goes into great detail on how to measure humans, anthropometric landmarks, anthropometric instruments, as well as a section on aging and sexing skeletal material.

Lockhart, R.d., Hamilton, G.F. and Fyfe, F.W. Anatomy of the Human Body.  Philadelphia: J.B. Kippincott Co., 1959.  This volume is an authoritative source book on the structure and function of the human body.  It first considers the skeleton in great detail, then, it considers each part of the human body in an integrated, functional manner.

Robinette, K.M., and Fowler, J. An Annotated Bibliography of United States Air Force Engineering Anthropometry - 1946 to 1988.  AAMRL-TR-88-013.  Wright Patterson A.F.B., Ohio; Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory.  Bell, N.A., Donelson, S.M. and Wolfson, E. An Annotated Bibliography of U.S. Army Natick Anthropology (1947-1991).  Natick/TR-91/044.  Natick, M.A.: U.S. Army Natick, R, D, and E Center.

Roebuck, J.A, Kroemer, K.H.E. and Thomason, W.G. Engineering Anthropometry Methods.  New York:  John Wiley & Sons, 1975 Methods for both measuring and applying data on human body dimensions and strength to engineering design are presented which the engineer and designer may use in the conceptual development of systems where applicable data is not already available.  A detailed discussion of the use of statistical theory in the development of anthropometric data is covered.  As section on applications methodology discusses the role of models and mock-ups of many types, for example, drawings, mannequins, models of reach envelopes, and mathematical models in the design evaluation process.  A detailed bibliography documenting examples of methods presented and a correlation coefficient table relating 96 anthropometric dimensions included in the appendices.

Sinclair, D. Human Growth After Birth, 5th Edition.  London:  Oxford University Press, 1989.  This is a volume written for the medical scientist or the medical student on aspects of post-natal growth of humans.  It covers the growth of the individual from birth until maturity with regards to height and weight, tissues, organ systems, indices of maturity, and ontogenetic changes in shape and posture.  It then considers factors affecting growth, repair, and maturation.

Snyder, R.G., Chaffin, D.B. and Schutz, R.K. Link System of the Human Torso.  Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio:  Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, United States Air Force, 1972.  Vector prediction equations are developed by use of anthropometry, photogrammetry, radiography and cineflouroscopy of 28 male volunteer subjects for location of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae relative to given surface landmarks.  This information is useful in the development of work-space envelopes.  This kind of information is extremely beneficial in the dynamic evaluation of man-machine interface problems.  Included also are anthropometric dimensions and skinfolds of 28 subjects used in the study.

Snyder, R.G., Spencer, M.L. Owings, C.L. and Schneider, L.W. Anthropometry of U.S. Infants and Children. Detroit:  Society of Automative Engineeers, Inc., 1975.  This  reference presents in tabular and graphic form the results of anthropometric data collection on 4024 infants and children from birth to 13 years of age, in half-year intervals.  Methods of data collection and analysis are also described.

Stoudt, H.W., Damon, A., McFarland, R.A. and Roberts, J. Skinfolds, Body Girths, Biacromial Diameter and Selected Anthropometric Indices of Adults:  United States, 1960-1962.  Rockville, Maryland; Health Resources Administration, National Center for Health Statistics, 1970.  This survey includes the following data by age in 10-year intervals (except for the intervals 18-24 years and 75-79 years) and by sex; right-arm and infrascapular skinfolds; right arm, waist, and chest girths; sum of skinfolds; ponderal index; ratios of sitting height erect to stature, chest girth to stature, and biacromial diameter to stature.  The equations for predicting each of the physical measurements from height, weight, and age, and the interrelation of all the measurements is summarized graphically and analyzed.

Stoudt, H.W., Damon, A., McFarland, R.A. and Roberts, J. Weight, Height, and Selected Body Dimensions of Adults: United States, 1960-1962.  Rockville, Maryland: Health Resources Administration, National Center for Health Statistics, 1965.  Data on the civilian population with a sample size of 3091 men and 3581 women, age 18 through 79, includes: height, weight, sitting height (normal and erect), knee height, popliteal height, elbow rest height, thigh clearance height, buttock-knee length, buttock-popliteal length, elbow-to-elbow breadth, and seat breadth.  Results of large-scale studies done in earlier years on college populations and others are compared.

Webb Associates.  Anthropometric Source Book, Vol.I:  Anthropometry for Designers, NASA 1024, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC 1978.  A source book was designed to provide NASA, NASA Contractors, the aerospace industry, government agencies, and wide variety of industrial users in the civilian sector with a comprehensive, up-to-date tabulation of anthropometric data.  Specifically, it is tailored to meet the needs of engineers engaged in the design of equipment, habitability areas, workspace layouts, life-support hardware, and clothing for NASA Space shuttle/Spacelab program.  The intent was to provide the designer not only with dimensional data but with underlying anthropometric concepts and their application to design.


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