Z94.17 - Work Design and Measurement

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OBJECTIVE RATING. A form of performance rating where all jobs are rated against a single standard base. Difficulty adjustment factors are added in terms of objectively describable features of the work. (See PERFORMANCE RATING.)

OBSERVATION. (1) In time study, the act of noting and recording the elapsed time taken by a worker performing an operation or an element of an operation. (2) In motion study, the act of noting and recording the motions used by a worker to perform an operation or an element of an operation. (3) In work sampling, the act of noting and recording what a worker is doing or what is happening in an operation at a specific instant.

OBSERVED TIME. (See ACTUAL TIME.)

OCCURRENCE (FREQUENCY). (1) The number of times an event takes place, usually in a specific time period. (2) The number of times an element occurs per cycle.

ONE BEST WAY. The concept that for every job there is an optimal work method that can be developed and specified. A concept originated by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth.

OPERATION. (1) A job or task, consisting of one or more work elements, usually done essentially in one location. (2) The performance of any planned work or method associated with an individual, machine, process, department, or inspection. (3) One or more elements which involve one of the following: the intentional changing of an object in any of its physical or chemical characteristics; the assembly or disassembly of parts or objects; the preparation of an object for another operation, transportation, inspection, or storage; planning, calculating, or the giving or receiving of information.

OPERATION BREAKDOWN. (See JOB BREAKDOWN.)

OPERATION CHART. (See RIGHT- AND LEFT-HAND CHART.)

OPERATION PROCESS CHART. A graphic, symbolic representation of the act of producing a product or providing a service, showing operations and inspections performed or to be performed with their sequential relationships and materials used. Operation and inspection time required and location may be included.

OPERATIONS ANALYSIS. A study of an operation or scenes of operations involving people, equipment, and processes for the purpose of investigating the effectiveness of specific operations or groups so that improvements can be developed which will raise productivity, reduce costs, improve quality, reduce accident hazards, and attain other desired objectives.

OPERATION TIME CHART. (See OPERATOR PROCESS CHART.)

OPERATOR PROCESS CHART. An operation process chart describing the work done by one operator. (See RIGHT- AND LEFT-HAND CHART.) Syn: operation time chart.

OPERATOR PRODUCTIVITY. The ratio of standard time or other performance standard to the actual time or other performance measure for the same task. When this ratio is equal to 1.00 (100%) the operator is meeting standard output. (See PERFORMANCE INDEX.) Syn: operator performance.

OUTLIER. In a group of data, a value which is so far removed from the rest of the distribution that its presence cannot be reasonably explained by the random combination of chance causes. (See ABNORMAL TIME.)

OUTPUT. A measure of the value of completed work units, usually expressed as the employee-hours to complete the work units; may be expressed as the money value. The ratio of output to input is a measure of performance.

OUTSIDE WORK. (See EXTERNAL WORK.)

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