Z94.17 - Work Design and Measurement

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NONCYCLIC ELEMENT. An element of an operation or process that does not occur every cycle of the operation or process, but its frequency of occurrence in the operation or process is specified by the method.

NONREPETITIVE. (1) Generally an operation or process that is performed for only one or a few cycles before it has to be changed significantly to adapt to new requirements. (2) Odd-job production. (3) An operation that does not have a predictable order of elements. (4) An occasional and/or varying element, operation, or job.

NORMAL EFFORT. The effort required in manual work to produce normal performance. (See NORMAL PERFORMANCE.)

NORMAL ELEMENT TIME. (1) The selected (average, modal, or other) element time adjusted by performance rating to obtain the time required by an average qualified worker to perform a single element of an operation while working at a normal pace. (2) The time resulting from application of a predetermined time system to a prescribed work method.

NORMAL PACE. The manual pace required to produce normal performance. (See NORMAL PERFORMANCE.)

NORMAL PERFORMANCE. (1) The work output of a qualified employee considered acceptable in relation to standards and/or pay levels, which result from agreement, with or without measurement, by management or between management and the workers or their representatives. (2) An acceptable amount of work produced by a qualified employee following a prescribed method under standard safe conditions with an effort that does not incur cumulative fatigue from day to day. (3) The base performance level above which incentive bonus is paid. (See FAIR DAY'S WORK, SHOULD-TAKE.)


NORMAL TIME. The time required by a qualified worker to perform a task at a normal pace to complete an element, cycle, or operation using a prescribed method. (See NORMAL PERFORMANCE.) Syns: base time, leveled time.

NORMAL WORKING AREA. (1) The area at the workplace which is bounded by the arc drawn by the worker's fingertips moving in the horizontal plane, with the elbow as a pivot, when the worker is standing or seated in the normal working position with the arm close to the body hanging in a stationary position: the section where the right and left hands overlap in front of the worker constitutes the normal working area for the two hands. (2) In a vertical plane, the space on the surface of the imaginary sphere which would be generated by rotating about the worker's body as an axis, the arc traced by the worker's fingertips of the right or left hand when the forearm is moved vertically about the elbow as a pivot. (3) The space within reach of a worker's fingertips as they develop arcs of revolutions, the elbows acting as a pivot when the worker is standing or sitting in the normal working position with the upper arm hanging from the shoulder close to the body in a stationary position.

NORMS. A word frequently employed with different meanings, depending on how it is used. Most frequently it refers to the central value from a population distribution as with normal effort, normal element time, normal pace, normal performance, normal time or normal working area. It is the most frequently used word in work measurement definitions where it usually refers to the central measure of a pertinent distribution. However, with the term normal operator, it means one reasonably expectable from the usual distribution.

NUMBERING SYSTEM. (1) A plan for the assignment of numeric keys to items or cases included within a given classification. (2) Means of identifying individual or group arrangements.

NUMERICAL CONTROL. A system of controlling a unit, usually a machine tool, whereby either a binary or decimal digit system is programmed to carry out machining operations through electronic circuits and related activating mechanisms.

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