Z94.15 - Organization Planning and Theory

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MANAGEMENT. (1) The process of utilizing material and human resources to accomplish designated objectives. It involves the activities of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling. (2) That group of people who perform the functions described above.

MANAGEMENT AUDIT. The process of evaluating how effectively management has operated the organization. Typical of criteria often employed in this audit are production efficiency, earnings, utilization of assets, management and executive talent, fairness to stockholders, and ROI.

MANAGEMENT BY COMMITTEE. The committee is sometimes used when the subjects or problems are broad or involve many functions. A committee is then formed to manage the responsibility area, usually the members are the managers of the involved functions. Typical examples where this management form is used are patents and new products.

MANAGEMENT BY EXCEPTION. A style of management in which the manager establishes a systematic pattern of acceptable operations thus freeing himself from routine occurrences in order to devote his talents to the more difficult problems which are exceptions to the routine.

MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES. A management strategy developed by Odiorne which makes the establishment and communication of organization objectives the central function of a manager. It is based on the assumption that supervision and leadership will work best under conditions in which both superiors and subordinates have prior "contracts" (i.e., agreements about directions, priorities, and objectives); called MBO.

MANAGEMENT (MANAGER) DEVELOPMENT. The application of planned efforts to assist in supplying, maintaining, and improving managers at, or intended for, the middle and top organizational levels in order that they can more efficiently attain the objectives of the enterprise.

MANAGEMENT FOR QUALITY. The translation of customer focus and quality values into implementation plans for all levels of management and supervision.

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM. An organization's structured system of information inputs covering both the internal and external environments and an associated assimilation, storage and analysis system that provides at the time and place required the information outputs (in an easily understandable manner) necessary to manage the organization efficiently and effectively-and only those outputs unless the system is interrogated and requested to deliver additional data and/or analyses. Usually, in the modern sense, a computer is integral with the system; but this is not a requirement.

MANAGEMENT, LOWER. The first level of supervision which is directly in charge of a group of employees. In very large organizations, having many levels of management, lower management could include the first two levels above the nonsupervisory employee level. The foreman, general foreman, and supervisory positions comprise lower management.

MANAGEMENT, MIDDLE. That broad group of managers and administrators which is located below the top policy-making management level and above the level of supervision. It includes both line and staff personnel.

MANAGEMENT, TOP. The ultimate level of authority consisting of those directors and principal administrative officers of the company who are responsible for the determination of broad policies, procedures, objectives, and goals. It implements these policies and procedures through its continuous function of defining organization, authority, responsibilities, staffing and by coordinating, integrating, measuring and controlling the organization. (See CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER.)

MANAGER. One who plans work and organizes and directs people toward the accomplishment of organizational objectives. (2) One who is responsible for the planning and employment of resources toward the achievement of organizational objectives even though he may not supervise people.

MANAGERIAL GRID. A method of analyzing leadership and managerial styles that was formulated by R.R. Blake and J.S. Mouton. These styles of leadership are classified according to the manager's "concern for people" as one broad dimension and "concern for production" as the other broad dimension. The styles are plotted upon a grid with each dimension scaled from 1 to 9. Blake and Mouton identified five principal styles: 1,1-impoverished; 9,1-task; 1,9-country club; 5,5-middle-of-the-road; 9,9-team management.

MANAGERIAL STYLE. The way in which a manager relates to others in his work place. This includes such characteristics as consideration for people, concern for production, objectivity, work pace, and degree of involvement of subordinates in decision-making.

MATRIX MANAGEMENT. A management system whereby an employee (usually a professional or semi-professional) has two bosses, but each boss is responsible for a different aspect of the work being performed. For example, project managers can be responsible for outputs and budgets but their manpower resides in functional components whose managers retain some responsibility for the functionally oriented activities performed by their personnel.

MEANS-ENDS ANALYSIS. A method of organization planning and program planning that involves a) starting with the general goal to be achieved, b) discovering a set of means for accomplishing this goal, and c) taking each of these means, in turn, as a new subgoal and discovering a set of more detailed means for achieving it and so on to the point where a particular means can be carried out by existing programs of action.

MODEL. A simplification of some phenomenon for purposes of study and understanding. The concrete embodiment of a theory. Behaving in an idealized way so that others might learn or change their behavior through identifying with and adopting those behaviors displayed.

MORALE. The total satisfactions derived from the job, the work group, one's supervisor, the organization, and the general environment. It pertains to the general feeling of well-being, satisfaction, and happiness of people.

MOTIVATION. A willingness to expend energy to achieve a goal or a reward.

MOTIVATION-HYGIENE THEORY. Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction.

MOTIVE. That which is within the individual, rather than without, that incites him to action.

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