Z94.10 Management

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Bibliography

 

VALENCE. A factor in expectancy theory that is our assessment of the anticipated value of various outcomes or rewards.

VALIDITY. A concept underlying the use of various selection methods that concerns the degree to which a measure actually assesses an attribute that it is designed to measure.

VARIABLE-INTERVAL SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT. A type of partial reinforcement schedule based on a pattern in which a reinforcer is administered on a varying, or random, time schedule that averages out to a predetermined time frequency.

VARIABLE-RATIO SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT. A type of partial reinforcement schedule based on a pattern in which a reinforcer is provided after a varying, or random, number of occurrences of the desired behavior in such a way that the reinforcement pattern averages out to a predetermined ratio of occurrences per reinforcement.

VENTURE TEAM. A group of two or more individuals who band together for the purpose of creating a new venture.

VERBAL COMMUNICATION. The written or oral use of words to communicate.

VERTICAL COMMUNICATION. Communication that involves a message exchange between two or more levels of the organizational hierarchy.

VERTICAL COORDINATION. The linking of activities at the top of the organization with those at the middle and lower levels in order to achieve organizational goals.

VERTICAL INTEGRATION. A growth strategy that involves the production of inputs previously provided by suppliers or through the replacement of a customer role by disposing of one's own outputs.

VICARIOUS LEARNING. A component of social learning theory involving our ability to learn new behaviors and/or assess their probable consequences by observing others.

VIDEO TELECONFERENCING. The holding of meetings with individuals in two or more locations by means of closed-circuit television.


 

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