Z94.10 Management

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CAFETERIA STYLE BENEFIT PLAN. A benefit plan in which employees can choose from a wide range of alternative benefits, tailoring them to their particular situations.

CAPACITY ARGUMENT. A theory which states that the private sector, because of its considerable economic and human resources, must make up for recent government cutbacks in social programs.

CAPACITY PLANNING. A primary operating system used in operations management that is concerned with determining the people, machines, and major physical resources, such as buildings, that will be necessary to meet the production objectives of the organization.

CAPACITY REQUIREMENTS PLANNING. A technique for determining what personnel and equipment are needed to meet short-term production objectives.

CAPITAL EXPENDITURES BUDGET. A type of budget that involves a plan for the acquisition or divestiture of major fixed assets, such as land, buildings, or equipment.

CAPITALIST ECONOMY. An economy in which economic activity is governed by market forces and the means of production are privately owned by individuals.

CAREER. A sequence of work-related activities and experiences that span the course of a person’s life.

CAREER MANAGEMENT. The continuing process of setting career goals, formulating and implementing strategies for reaching the goals, and monitoring the results.

CARRYING, OR HOLDING, COST. An inventory cost comprised of the expenses associated with keeping an item on hand (such as storage, insurance, pilferage, breakage).

CASH BUDGET. A financial budget that projects future cash flows arising from cash receipts and disbursements by the organization during a specified period.

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT. The main memory and processing section of a computer.

CENTRALIZATION. A vertical coordination method that addresses the extent to which power and authority are retained at the top organizational levels.

CEREMONIAL. A system of rites performed in conjunction with a single occasion or event.

CHAIN OF COMMAND. The unbroken line of authority that ultimately links each individual with the top organizational position through a managerial position at each successive layer in between.

CHANGE. Any alteration of the status quo.

CHANGE AGENT. An individual with a fresh perspective and a knowledge of the behavioral sciences who acts as a catalyst in helping the organization approach old problems in new or innovative ways and thus plays a key role in OD interventions.

CHARISMA. A leadership factor that comprises the leader’s ability to inspire pride, faith, and respect; to recognize what is really important; and to articulate effectively a sense of mission or vision that inspires followers.

CLAN CONTROL. A managerial approach that relies on values, beliefs, traditions, corporate culture, shared norms, and informal relationships to regulate employee behavior and facilitate the reaching of organizational goals.

CLASSICAL VIEWPOINT. A perspective on management that emphasizes finding ways to manage work and organizations more effectively.

CLIENTS. Those individuals and organizations that purchase an organization’s products and/or services.

CLOSED SYSTEM. A system that does little or no interacting with its environment and receives little feedback.

COERCIVE POWER. Power that depends on the ability to punish others when they do not engage in desired behaviors.

COGNITIVE RESOURCE THEORY. A theory, which is a major revision and extension of Fiedler’s contingency model, that considers the additional factor of a leader’s cognitive resource use in predicting performance.

COGNITIVE RESOURCES. Factors that involve the intellectual abilities, technical competence, and job relevant knowledge that leaders bring to their jobs.

COGNITIVE THEORIES. Theories that attempt to iso-late the thinking patterns that we use in deciding whether or not to behave in a certain way.

COLLABORATION. A conflict-handling mode that strives to resolve conflict by devising solutions that allow both parties to achieve their desired outcomes.

COMMAND GROUP. A formal group consisting of a manager and all the subordinates who report to that manager.

COMMUNICATION. The exchange of messages between people for the purpose of achieving common meanings.

COMMUNICATION CHANNELS. Various patterns of organizational communication flow that represent potential established conduits through which managers and other organization members can send and receive information.

COMMUNICATION NETWORK. The pattern of information flow among task group members.

COMPENSATION. Wages paid directly for time worked, as well as more indirect benefits that employees receive as part of their employment relationship with an organization.

COMPETITION. A conflict-handling mode that involves attempting to win a conflict at the other party’s expense.

COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE. A significant and specific edge one enjoys over a business rival.

COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF NATIONS. The concept that environmental elements within a nation can foster innovation in certain industries, there-by increasing the prospects of success of home-based companies operating internationally within those industries.

COMPETITORS. The element of task environment that includes other organizations that either offer or have a high potential of offering rival products or services.

COMPLACENCY. A condition preventing effective decision making in which individuals either do not see the signs of danger or opportunity or ignore them.

COMPRESSED WORKWEEK. An alternative work schedule whereby employees work four 10-hour days or some similar combination, rather than the usual five 8-hour days.

COMPROMISE. A conflict-handling mode that aims to solve conflict issues by having each party give up some desired outcomes in order to get other de-sired outcomes.

COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (CAD). A system on which CIM systems rely that uses computers to geometrically prepare, review, and evaluate product designs.

COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING (CAM). A system on which CIM systems rely that uses computers to design and control production processes.

COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI). A training technique in which computers are used to lessen the time necessary for training by instructors and to provide additional help to individual trainees.

COMPUTER-BASED INFORMATION SYSTEMS (CBISS). Information systems that involve the use of computer technology.

COMPUTER-INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING (CIM). The computerized integration of all major functions associated with the production of a product.

COMPUTER VIRUS. A small program, usually hidden inside another program, that replicates itself and surfaces at a predetermined time to cause disruption and possibly destruction.

CONCENTRATION. A growth strategy that focuses on guiding the growth of a single product or service or a small number of closely related products or services.

CONCEPTUAL SKILLS. Key management skills related to the ability to visualize the organization as a whole, discern interrelationships among organizational parts, and understand how the organization fits into the wider context of the industry, concurrent enterprise, community, and world.

CONCURRENT CONTROL. A control type based on timing involving the regulation of ongoing activities that are part of the transformation process to ensure that they conform to organizational standards.

CONCURRENT ENGINEERING. (C.E., also called Concur-rent Enterprise). A systematic approach to the integrated, simultaneous design of products and their related processes, including manufacture and support. This approach is intended to cause the developers, from the outset, to consider all elements of the product life cycle from conception through disposal, including quality, cost, schedule, and user requirements. Also often called Simultaneous Engineering.

CONFLICT. A perceived difference between two or more parties that results in mutual opposition.

CONSIDERATION. The degree to which a leader builds mutual trust with subordinates, respects their ideas, and shows concern for their feelings.

CONSTRAINTS. Conditions that must be met in the course of solving a linear programming problem.

CONTINGENCY PLANNING. The development of alternative plans for use in the event that conditions evolve differently than anticipated, rendering original plans unwise or unfeasible.

CONTINGENCY THEORY. A viewpoint that argues that appropriate managerial action depends on the particular parameters of situation.

CONTINUOUS-PROCESS PRODUCTION. A type of technology in which products are made through a uninterrupted operation.

CONTROL SYSTEM. A set of mechanisms, established as part of the control process, that are designed to increased the probability of meeting organizational standards and goals.

CONTROLLING. The management function that is aimed at regulating organizational activities so that actual performance conforms to expected organizational standards and goals.

CONVERGENT THINKING. A way of thinking related to creativity in which an individual attempts to solve problems by beginning with a problem and attempting to move logically to a solution.

CO-OPTING. An approach to influencing the environment that involves absorbing key members of important environmental elements into the leadership or policy-making structure of an organization.

CORPORATE CULTURE. A term sometimes used for organizational culture.

CORPORATE-LEVEL STRATEGY. A type of strategy that addresses what businesses the organization will operate, how the strategies of those businesses will be coordinated to strengthen the organization's competitive position, and how resources will be allocated among the businesses.

CORPORATE PHILANTHROPY. Corporate contributions for charitable and social responsibility purposes.

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY. A term often used to refer to the concept of organizational social responsibility as applied to business organizations.

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIVENESS. A term used to refer to the concept of organizational social responsiveness as applied to business organizations.

CORRIDOR PRINCIPLE. A principle which states that the process of beginning a new venture helps entrepreneurs visualize other opportunities that they could not envision or take advantage of until they started the initial venture.

COST LEADERSHIP STRATEGY. A generic business-level strategy outlined by Michael E. Porter that involves emphasizing organizational efficiency so that the overall costs of providing products and services are lower than those of competitors.

CREATIVITY. The cognitive process of developing an idea, concept, commodity, or discovery that is viewed as novel by its creator or a target audience.

CRISIS PROBLEM. A type of problem in managerial decision making involving a serious difficulty that requires immediate action.

CRITICAL PATH. The path in a PERT network that will take the longest to complete.

CUSTOMER DIVISIONS. A form of divisional structure involving divisions set up to service particular types of clients or customers.

CUSTOMERS. Those individuals and organizations that purchase an organization’s products and/or services.

CYBERNETIC CONTROL SYSTEM. A self-regulating control system that, once it is put into operation, can automatically monitor the situation and take corrective action when necessary.

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