Z94.6 EMPLOYEE & INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
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JOB. A work assignment, a task or related series of tasks, a position classification or quantity of work. May be used in connection with either wage or salary activities.
JOB ANALYSIS. Systematic study of a position leading to a detailed specification of qualification and performance requirements for purposes of wage (or salary) administration, employee selection or training, determination of skill transfer opportunity, comparison and consolidation of positions or organizational design.
JOB BANKS. Places where computerized listing of jobs and their characteristics are maintained. These banks are generally associated with public employment agencies. (For “company” job banks see protected employees.)
JOB BURNOUT. A specific set of symptoms brought on by severe or chronic stress directly related to the career rather than personal difficulties. Related symptoms are chronic fatigue, low energy, irritability, and negative attitude toward job and self.
JOB BREAKDOWN. A job analysis detailing various elements pertaining to skill requirements, training and experience, mental and physical demands, working conditions, hazards exposure, and requirements of responsibilities of performance.
JOB CHARACTERISTIC. An attribute of a particular work function related to skill, experience, responsibility, effort or working conditions.
JOB CLASS. A designation given to jobs grouped by some criteria such as pay rate, skill level, or permanency. (See JOB CLASSIFICATION.)
JOB CLASSIFICATION. An arrangement of jobs in an establishment or industry into a series of categories, each of which is based on progressively higher requirements in terms of skill, experience, training, and similar considerations resulting in a grouping of occupations where distinctions between jobs are clear and sharp. Job descriptions are often used as a basis for classification. (See JOB EVALUATION.)
JOB CLUSTER. A grouping of jobs resulting from relatively equal job evaluation scores or related within an organization and linked together by technology, organization, or custom, e.g. a wide cluster could include all factory jobs; narrower clusters would be assembly jobs and maintenance jobs.
JOB COMBINATION. The practice, usually as a cost improvement, of combining two jobs into one job by eliminating some of the duties from one or both jobs and combining the remaining duties. The new job may be in a higher, lower, or the same labor grade.
JOB COMPARISON. A listing of key factors of each job being compared based upon their quantifiable values in order to permit relative analysis.
JOB CONTENT. Reference to basic work function elements and scope of duties involved in a given job (or position) primarily those pertaining to skills, mental and physical demands, and responsibilities.
JOB CONTENT EVALUATION METHOD. Analysis techniques that concentrate on the actual work activities involved in determining relative value.
JOB CYCLE. Time necessary to perform an operation before having to start it all over again.
JOB DEFINITION. (See JOB DESCRIPTION, JOB SPECIFICATION.)
JOB DESCRIPTION. An established written summary statement of a position which describes its functional requirements. It may include such specifics as equipment or tools used, physical and mental skills, training, working conditions, duties, responsibilities, location, and designation of supervisor.
JOB ENLARGEMENT. Horizontally broadening work responsibilities, i.e., adding more of the same type of duties requiring the same skills.
JOB ENRICHMENT. Vertically broadening work responsibilities include inspection, planning, etc. in contrast to the horizontal expansion of job duties implicit in job enlargement. (See JOB ENLARGEMENT.)
JOB EVALUATION. Rating jobs to determine their position in a job hierarchy through assignment of points or use of some other systematic rating method for essential job requirements such as skill, experience, and responsibility. Job evaluation is widely used in the establishment of wage rate structures and in the elimination of wage inequalities. (See JOB CLASSIFICATION, LABOR GRADE.)
JOB EVALUATION COMMITTEE. A committee whose membership is charged with the responsibility of a) selecting a work function analysis system and b) carrying out or overseeing the system operation. Job evaluation committee members usually represent all major constituencies within the organization.
JOB EVALUATION MANUAL. Organized documents defining policies, procedures, standards, work functions and the resulting analysis.
JOB EVALUATION POINT METHOD. A method of job evaluation wherein factors are measured according to a numerical index, the sum total of these numerical values becoming the relative measure of value (and pay rate) to other jobs.
JOB FACTOR. A defined characteristic or attribute of a job common to other jobs and suitable for basing a comparison of value or relative worth between jobs.
JOB FAMILY. Jobs involving work of the same nature but requiring different skill and responsibility levels.
JOB FEEDBACK. The degree to which the job itself provides the worker information about how well the job is being performed.
JOB FREEZING. Deferral of permanent assignment for a set period of time or until the person designated for the job meets qualification requirements.
JOB GRADE. (See PAY GRADE.)
JOB INSTRUCTION TRAINING (JIT). A systematic technique for on the-job training consisting of four steps (l) careful selection and preparation of trainer and trainee for the learning experience to follow; (2) full explanation and demonstration by the trainer ; (3) a trial on-the-job performance by the trainee; and (4) a thorough feedback session highlighting job performance and job requirements.
JOB LEVELS. Pay grade or pay level assigned to a work function.
JOB MATCHING. An essential function in effective recruiting that entails fitting the qualifications of people to the requirements of the job.
JOB POSTING. An announcement of job openings for the purpose of soliciting bids for promotion or transfer from employees.
JOB PRICING. The practice of establishing wage rates for positions within the organization, usually combining judgments regarding market value and internal evaluation results.
JOB PROFILE. A major component or feature of a job matching system that contains the descriptions of jobs that are available.
JOB RANKING. A method of job evaluation wherein various positions are set in a compensation level array based on relative appraisal of job factors.
JOB RATE. The established pay for a given position. (See MINIMUM JOB RATE, STANDARD RATE.)
JOB RATING. (See JOB EVALUATION.)
JOB RELATEDNESS. Refers to selection tests and qualifications being related to an employee’s potential success on the job. If a test or qualification is shown to be job related, a disparate impact charge can be defended.
JOB SCOPE. The range of duties, activities, responsibilities and authority involved in the proper performance of a job. (See JOB DESCRIPTION.)
JOB SECURITY. (1) (Explicit.) In certain labor contracts, the employment level to be maintained in the plant over the life of the contract is stipulated and is, therefore, explicit. The maintenance of employment by a specific clause in a contract or agreement. (2) (Implicit.) The practice, in certain labor contracts, where the union will relinquish certain benefits in exchange for a surmised level of continuing employment. But because the level of employment is a matter of discussion and not a guarantee, the maintenance of employment (job security) is said to be implicit.
JOB SHARING. The redesign of a full-time job resulting in two or more employees holding responsibility for a single job, dividing time, salary or wages, and fringe benefits.
JOB SPECIFICATION. Necessary capabilities for satisfactory activity performance. (See JOB DESCRIPTION.)
JOB TITLE. A label for a work function or assignment.
JOINT ACTION PROCESS (See UNION-MANAGEMENT COOPERATION.)
JOINT AND SURVIVOR OPTION. A pension plan provision under which the pensioner may receive a reduced benefit with a guarantee that, if he/she dies while his/her beneficiary is living, payments of a predetermined proportion of the reduced benefit will be continued to this beneficiary for life. Also known as survivor’s option.
JOINT BARGAINING. Two or more unions negotiating an agreement with a single employer or two or more employers negotiating an agreement with a single union.
JOINT BOARD (OR COUNCIL). Delegate body composed of representatives of locals of a single national or international union in a particular area, working together to further the interests of the union. When more than one union is involved, the term “trade council” may be used.
JOINT LOCKOUT. (See LOCKOUT.)
JOINT RATE SETTING. The process of management and labor establishing wages. The extent of labor participation in the actual process of rate setting varies from industry to industry, and from establishment to establishment
JOURNEYMAN. A fully qualified trade craftsman who has successfully completed an apprentice program.
JOURNEYMAN RATE. The rate of pay for a fully qualified worker in a skilled trade or craft, who has completed an apprenticeship or equivalent training. Some journeymen may receive rates above or below union scale.
JURISDICTION. The union right to represent workers within specified occupations, industries, or geographical boundaries.
JURISDICTIONAL DISPUTE. Conflict between two or more unions over the organization of a particular establishment or whether a certain type of work should be performed by members of one union or another.
JURISDICTIONAL STRIKE. A work stoppage resulting from a jurisdictional dispute.
JURY-DUTY PAY. Pay or allowance granted to an employee for working time spent on jury duty, usually in addition to fees paid by the court.
JUST CAUSE. Good or fair reasons for discipline. This term is commonly used in agreement provisions safeguarding workers from unjustified discharge or other disciplinary action.
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