Z94.3 - Computer & Information Systems

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SCAN. (ANSI) To examine every reference or every entry in a file routinely as part of a retrieval scheme. (2) (ANSI) To examine sequentially, part by part.

SCROLLING. (ANSI/ISO) Moving a window vertically or horizontally in order to view data not otherwise visible within the boundaries of a display screen or window.

SEARCH. (1) (ANSI/ISO) The examination of one or more data elements of a set for one or more elements that have a given property. (2) (ANSI) To examine a set of items for one or more having a given property.

SEARCH KEY. (1) (ANSI/ISO) A key used for data retrieval. (2) (ANSI) In a record, a data item that represents one of the data values of the range allowed for a particular attribute of an entity.

SECTOR. (ANSI/ISO) A predetermined angular part of a track or a band on a magnetic drum or magnetic disk that can be addressed.

SEQUENCE. (1) (ANSI/ISO) A series of items that have been sequenced. (2) (ANSI) An arrangement of items according to a specified set of rules, e.g., items arranged alphabetically, numerically, or chronologically. (3) (ANSI) To place items in an arrangement in accordance with the order of the natural numbers. (4) (ANSI/ISO) Deprecated term for order.

SEQUENTIAL ACCESS. (1) (ANSI/ISO) The capability to enter data into a storage device or data medium in the same sequence as the data are ordered, or to obtain data in the same order as they were entered. (2) (ANSI) Syn: serial access.

SERIAL. (1) (ANSI/ISO) Pertaining to a process in which all events occur one after the other; e.g., the serial transmission of the bits of a character according to the CCITT V25 protocol. (2) (ANSI) Pertaining to the sequential or consecutive occurrence of two or more related activities in a single device or channel. (3) (ANSI) Pertaining to the sequential processing of the individual parts of a whole, such as the bits of a character or the characters of a word, using the same facilities for successive parts. (4) (ANSI) Contrast with parallel.

SERIAL PRINTER. (ANSI/ISO) Syn: character printer.

SERIAL SORT. (ANSI) A sort that requires only sequential access to the items in a set.

SET. (1) (ANSI/ISO) A finite or infinite number of objects, entities, or concepts, that have a given property or properties in common.  (2) (ANSI/ISO) To cause a counter to take the state corresponding to a specified number. (3) (ANSI/ISO) To put all or part of a data processing device into a specified state. (4) (ANSI) In the CODASYL model, a set of records that represents a hierarchical relationship between its owner record and the member records of the set.

SIGNAL. (1) (ANSI/ISO)A variation of a physical quantity, used to convey data.  (2) (ANSI/ISO) A time-dependent value attached to a physical phenomenon and conveying data.

SIMULATION. (ANSI/ISO) The representation of selected characteristics of the behavior of one physical or abstract system by another system: e.g., the representation of physical phenomena by means of operations performed by a computer system; or the representation of operations of a data processing system by those of another data processing system.

SINGLE PRECISION. (ANSI/ISO) Characterized by the use of one computer word to represent a number in accordance with the required precision.

SOFTWARE. (1) (ANSI) Programs, procedures, rules, and any associated documentation pertaining to the operation of a system. (2) (ANSI) Contrast with hardware.

SORT. (1) (ANSI/ISO) To segregate items into groups according to specified criteria without necessarily ordering the items within each group. (2) (ANSI) To arrange a set of items according to keys which are used as a basis for determining the sequence of the items, e.g., to arrange the records of a personnel file into alphabetical sequence by using the employee names as sort keys.

SORT KEY. (1) (ANSI) A key used as a basis for determining the sequence of items in a set. Syn: sequencing key.

SOURCE LANGUAGE. (ANSI/ISO) A language from which statements are translated.

SOURCE PROGRAM. (1) (ANSI/ISO) A computer program expressed in a source language.

SPOOLING. (ANSI/ISO) The use of auxiliary storage as a buffer storage to reduce processing delays when transferring data between peripheral equipment and the processors of a computer. The term is derived from the expression “simultaneous peripheral operation on line.”

SPREADSHEET. (ANSI) A worksheet arranged in rows and columns, in which a change in the contents of one cell can cause electronic recomputation of one or more cells, based on user-defined relations among the cells.

STATEMENT. (1) (ANSI/ISO) In a programming language, a language construct that represents a set of declarations or a step in a sequence of actions. (2) (ANSI) In computer programming, a symbol string or other arrangement of symbols. (3) (ANSI/ISO) Deprecated term for instruction.

STORAGE. (1) (ANSI/ISO) The retention of data in a storage device.  (2) (ANSI/ISO)  The action of placing data into a storage device.  (3) (ANSI) A storage device. Syn: memory. (4) (ANSI) Any medium in which data can be retained.

STRING. (1) (ANSI/ISO) A sequence of elements of the same type, such as characters, considered as a whole.

STYLUS. (ANSI/ISO) A pointer that is operated by placing it in a display space or a table, e.g., a light pen, sonic pen, voltage pencil.

SUBROUTINE. (1) (ANSI/ISO) A sequenced set of statements that may be used in one or more computer programs, and at one or more points in a computer program. The execution of a subroutine is usually invoked by a call.  (2) (ANSI) A routine that can be part of another routine.

SUBROUTINE CALL. (ANSI) The language construct, in object coding, that performs the call function.

SUBSCRIPT. (ANSI/ISO) A symbol that is associated with the name of a set to identify a particular subset or element of the set.

SUPERVISORY PROGRAM. (1) (ANSI/ISO) A computer program, usually part of an operating system, that controls the execution of other computer programs and regulates the flow of work in a data processing system.  (2) (ANSI) Syn: executive program, supervisor.

SYMBOL. (1) (ANSI/ISO) A conventional representation of a concept or a representation of a concept upon which agreement has been reached. (2) (ANSI) A representation of something by reason of relationship, association, or convention.

SYMBOLIC LANGUAGE. (ANSI) A programming language that expresses addresses and operation codes of instructions in symbols convenient to humans rather than to machine language.

SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION. (ANSI/ISO) Data transmission in which the time of occurrence of each signal representing a bit is related to a fixed time base. (2) (ANSI) Contrast with asynchronous transmission.

SYNTAX. (1) (ANSI) The relationships among characters or groups of characters, independent of their meanings or the manner of their interpretation and use. (2) (ANSI) The structure of expressions in a language. (3) (ANSI) The rules governing the structure of a language. (4) (ANSI) The relationship among symbols.


SYSTEM. (ANSI/ISO) People, machines, and methods organized to accomplish a set of specific functions.

SYSTEM GENERATION (SYSGEN). (ANSI/ISO) The process of selecting optional parts of an operating system and of creating a particular operating system tailored to the requirements of a data processing installation.

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