Z94.3 - Computer & Information Systems

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Bibliography

 

CACHE MEMORY. (ANSI/ISO0 A special buffer storage, smaller and faster than main storage, that is used to hold a copy of instructions and data in main storage that are likely to be needed next by the processor, and that have been obtained automatically from main storage.

CALL. (1) (ANSI/ISO) The action of bringing a computer program, a routine, or a subroutine into effect, usually by specifying the entry conditions and jumping to an entry point. (2) (ANSI) In data communication, the action performed by the calling party, or the operations necessary in making a call, or the effective use made of a connection between two stations. (3) (ANSI/ISO) In computer programming, to execute a call. (4) (ANSI) To transfer control to a specified closed subroutine.

CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY. (ANSI) A device that presents data in visual form by means of controlled electron beams. 

CELL. The intersection of a row and column in a matrix or spreadsheet.

CHANNEL. (1) (ANSI/ISO) A means of one-way transmission. A channel may be provided; e.g., by frequency or time division multiplexing. Syn: data transmission channel. (2) (ANSI) A path along which signals can be sent, e.g., data channel, output channel. (2) (ANSI) The portion of a storage medium that is accessible to a given reading or writing station, e.g., track, band. (3) (ANSI/ISO)

CHARACTER. (1) (ANSI/ISO) A member of a set of elements upon which agreement has been reached and that is used for the organization, control, or representation of information. Characters may be letters, digits, punctuation marks, or other symbols.

CHECK DIGIT. (ANSI) A check key that consists of a single digit.

CLIENT-SERVER. A version of cooperative processing in which networked computers act as servers and/or clients. Clients are requesters of information. Servers are repositories of information or coordinators of requests. Systems on the network may act as both clients and servers when this is appropriate.

CLOCK. (1) (ANSI/ISO) A device that generates periodic, accurately spaced signals used for such purposes as timing, regulation of the operations of a processor, or generation of interrupts. (2) (ANSI) (See

MASTER CLOCK.) (3) 

COBOL (See COMMON BUSINESS ORIENTED LANGUAGE.)

CODE. (1) (ANSI/ISO) A set of rules that maps the elements of one set, the coded set, onto the elements of another set, the code element set. Syn: coding scheme. (2) (ANSI) A set of items, such as abbreviations, that represent the members of another set. (3) (ANSI/ISO) To represent data or a computer program in a symbolic form that can be accepted by a processor. (4) (ANSI) To write a routine.

COLLISION. (ANSI/ISO) An unwanted condition that arises from concurrent transmissions on a channel and that results in garbled data.

COM. (ANSI) Computer Output Microfilming.

COMMON BUSINESS ORIENTED LANGUAGE (COBOL). (ANSI) A programming language designed for business data processing.

COMPILE. (1) (ANSI/ISO) To translate a computer program expressed in a problem-oriented language into a computer-oriented language. (2) (ANSI) To prepare a machine language program from a computer program written in another programming language by making use of the overall logic structure of the program, or generating more than one computer instruction for each symbolic statement, or both, as well as performing the function of an assembler.

COMPILER. (ANSI/ISO) A computer program used to compile. Syn: compiling program.

CONCURRENT OPERATION. (1) (ANSI/ISO) Pertaining to processes that take place within a common interval of time during which they may have to alternately share common resources; e.g. several programs are concurrent when they are executed by multiprogramming in a computer having a single instruction control unit. (2) (ANSI) Contrast with simultaneous.

CONSOLE. (ANSI) A part of a computer used for communication between the operator or maintenance engineer and the computer.

CONTENTION. (1) (ANSI/ISO) In a local area network, a situation in which two or more data stations are allowed by the protocol to start transmitting concurrently and thus risk collision. (2) (ANSI/ISO) A condition that arises when two or more data stations attempt to transmit at the same time over a shared channel, or when two data stations attempt to transmit at the same time in two-way alternate communications.

COOPERATIVE PROCESSING. A system in which applications work together cooperatively, without respect to location or system. For example, a workstation might initiate a transaction and the software, recognizing that it needs information stored elsewhere, would retrieve it from the appropriate computer system. Client/Server is one approach to this.

COPY. (1) (ANSI/ISO) To read data from a source, leaving the source data unchanged, and to write the same data elsewhere on a data medium that may differ from that of the source; e.g. to copy a file from a magnetic tape onto a magnetic disk. (2) (ANSI/ISO) The reproduction of selected recorded text from memory or from a recording medium to another recording medium.

CPU. (ANSI) Central Processing Unit.

CRT DISPLAY. (See CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.)

CURSOR. (ANSI/ISO) A movable, visible mark used to indicate the position on which the next operation will occur on a display surface.

CUT AND PASTE. (ANSI/ISO) In text processing, a function that enables the user to designate a block of text and to move it from one point to another within a document or into another document. Syn: block move.

CYBERNETICS. (ANSI) The branch of learning that brings together theories and studies on communication and control in living organisms and in machines.

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