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Z94.12.7 Welding

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SEMIAUTOMATIC ARC WELDING. Arc welding with equipment which controls only the filler metal feed. The advance of the welding is manually controlled.

SHIELDED METAL ARC-WELDING. An arc-welding process wherein coalescence is produced by heating with an arc between a covered metal electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained from decomposition of the electrode covering. Pressure is not used and filler metal is obtained from the electrode.

SLAG INCLUSION. Nonmetallic solid material entrapped in weld metal or between weld metal and base metal.

SOLDERING. A group of joining processes wherein coalescence is produced by heating to a suitable temperature and by using a filler metal having a liquidus not exceeding 800°F (427°C) and below the solidus of the base metals.

SOLID STATE WELDING. A group of welding processes wherein coalescence is produced essentially at temperatures below the melting point of the base metals being joined, without the addition of a brazing filler metal. Pressure is not used and filler metal is obtained from the electrode.

SPATTER. In arc and gas welding, the metal particles expelled during welding and which do not form a part of the weld.

SPOTWELD. A weld made between or upon overlapping members wherein coalescence may start and occur on the faying surfaces or may have proceeded from the surface of one member. The weld cross section (plan view) is approximately circular.

SQUEEZE TIME. The time interval between the initial application of the electrode force on the work and the first application of current in making spot and seam welds by resistance welding and in projection or upset welding.

STRAIGHT POLARITY. The arrangement of direct current arc-welding leads wherein the work is the positive pole and the electrode is the negative pole of the welding arc.

STRESS-RELIEF HEAT TREATMENT. Uniform heating of a structure or portion thereof to a sufficient temperature, below the critical range, to relieve the major portion of the residual stresses, followed by uniform cooling.  Note: Terms normalizing, annealing, etc., are misnomers for this application.

STUD WELDING. An arc-welding process wherein coalescence is produced by heating with an arc drawn between a metal stud, or similar part, and the other work part until the surfaces to be joined are properly heated, when they are brought together under pressure.  Partial shielding may be obtained by the use of a ceramic ferrule surrounding the stud.  Shielding gas or flux may or may not be used.

SUBMERGED ARC WELDING. An arc-welding process wherein coalescence is produced by heating with an arc or arcs between a bare metal electrode or electrodes and the work.  The arc is shielded by a blanket of granular, fusible material on the work. Pressure is not used and filler metal is obtained from the electrode and sometimes from a supplementary welding rod.

SURFACING. The deposition of filler metal on a metal surface to obtain desired properties or dimensions.

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