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Z94.12.5 Metal Machining

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ECONOMIC TOOL LIFE. The period of time, usually given in minutes, during which the tool performs the function required, at cutting conditions that result in least cost per piece.

ELECTROCHEMICAL GRINDING (ECG). Also known as electrolytic grinding. A special form of electrochemical machining (refer to ECM). It employs the combined actions of electrochemical attack and abrasion to rapidly remove material from electrically conductive workpieces (anode) by employing a rotating grinding wheel (cathode).

ELECTRON BEAM MACHINING (EBM). This process uses electrical energy to generate thermal energy for removing material. A pulsating stream of high-speed electrons produced by a generator is focused by electrostatic and electromagnetic fields to concentrate energy on a very small area of work. As the electrons impinge on the work, their kinetic energy is transformed into thermal energy and melts or evaporates the material locally.

ELECTRIC DISCHARGE MACHINING (EDM). A nontraditional method of removing metals by a series of rapidly recurring electrical discharges between an electrode (the tool) and the workpiece in the presence of a dielectric fluid. Minute particles of metal or chips are removed by melting and vaporization, and are washed from the gap by the dielectric fluid which is continuously flushed between the tool and the workpiece.

ELECTROCHEMICAL MACHINING (ECM). A method of removing metal without the use of mechanical or thermal energy. Electric energy is combined with a chemical to form a reaction of reverse plating. Direct current at relatively high amperage and low voltage is continuously passed between the anode workpiece and cathode tool (electrode) through a conductive electrode.

END MILLING. The production of a flat or slotted surface when employing a shank-mounted cutter.

ENGINE LATHE. The most common turning machine tool, usually manually controlled. Its main components are the bed, carriage, headstock, and tailstock.

ERROR BUDGETING. In precision engineering it is the analytical and experimental procedures to identify and quantify error sources, and to determine their combinational effect on the machining accuracy.

Error Compensation. Procedures to obtain the machining reference and tool dimension offsets and use them to reposition the tool for reducing machining error.

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