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ILITE. A mineral, typically KA13Si3O10(OH)2 found in many clays; large clay deposits of ilite are found in Illinois and Michigan.
IMPREGNATION. The treatment of castings with a sealing medium to stop pressure leaks, such as soaking under pressure with or without prior evacuation but usually in heated baths. Media include sodium silicate solutions, drying oils or styrenes, plastics or propietary compounds.
INCLUSIONS. Particles of impurities (usually oxides, sulphides, silicates and such) that are held mechanically, or are formed during solidification or by subsequent reaction within the solid metal.
INCONEL. Any of a series of oxidation resistant alloys usually containing up to 80% or more nickel, 8% to 14% chromium and 5% or so of iron.
INDIRECT-ARC FURNACE. An electric-arc furnace in which the metal bath is not one of the poles of the arc.
INDUCTION FURNACE. A melting furnace which uses the heat developed by an electrical induction coil.
INGOT. A mass of metal cast in a heavy cast iron permanent mold. The ingot is cast in a convenient size and shape for remelting or hot working operations.
INJECTION. The process of forcing molten metal into a die.
INOCULANT. Materials which when added to molten metal modify the structure, and thereby change the physical and mechanical properties to a degree not explained on the basis of the change in composition resulting from their use.
INSULATING PADS AND SLEEVES. Insulating material such as gypsum, diatomaceous earth, etc., used to lower the rate of solidification. As riser sleeves and topping they keep the riser liquid thus increasing feeding efficiency.
INTERNAL SHRINKAGE. A void or network of voids within a casting caused by improper feeding of that section during solidification.
INVERSE CHILL. The condition in a casting section where the interior is mottled while the outer sections are gray iron.
INVESTING. The process of pouring the investment slurry into a flask surrounding the pattern to form the mold.
INVESTMENT. A flowable mixture of a graded refractory filler, a binder and liquid vehicle which when poured around the patterns conforms to their shape and subsequently set hard to form the investment mold.
INVESTMENT CASTING. The process of casting metal into an investment mold.
IRON, HARD OR WHITE. Irons possessing white fractures because substantially all of the carbon is in the combined form. Irons to be malleabilized are cast white, as are many abrasion-resistant irons.
IRON, MALLEABLE. A mixture of iron and carbon, including smaller amounts of silicon, manganese, phosphorus, and sulphur, which after being cast (white iron, carbon in combined form as carbides) is converted structurally by heat-treatment into a matrix of ferrite containing nodules of temper carbon.
IRON, PEARLITIC. A cast iron (gray ductile or malleable) having a more or less pearlitic matrix.
IRON OXIDE. A core sand additive to increase the high temperature and penetration resistance of core sand mixes. It contains about 85% of pulverized ore.
ISERINE. A black sand which consists mainly of magnetic iron ore, but which also contains a considerable amount of titanium.
IZOD TEST. A pendulum type impact test, in which the specimen is supported at one end as a cantilever beam so the energy required to break the specimen is a measure of impact strength.
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