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GAGGERS. Metal pieces of irregular shape used to reinforce and support sand in deep pockets of molds.
GAS HOLES. Rounded cavities, either spherical, flattened, or elongated, in a casting, caused by the generation and/or accumulation of gas or entrapped air during solidification of the casting.
GATE. End of the runner in a mold where molten metal enters the casting or mold cavity; sometimes applied to entire assembly of connected channels, to the pattern parts which form them, or to the metal which fills them, and sometimes is restricted to mean the first or main channel.
GATE, RUNNER. A horizontal channel for running metal into the mold cavity.
GATE, SLOT. A gate used on vertical cylindrical castings in which the down sprue and casting are connected over a large part or all of the height of the casting.
GATE STRAINER. A gate designed to prevent slag and dirt from entering the mold and also to control the rate at which metal enters the mold cavity.
GATING SYSTEM. The complete assembly of sprues, runners, gates and individual casting cavities in the mold. Term also applies to similar portions of master patterns, pattern die, patterns, investment mold, and the finished casting.
GOOSENECK. Spout connecting a metal pot or chamber with a nozzle or sprue hole in the die and containing a passage through which molten metal is forced on its way to the die. It is the metal-injection mechanism in a hot-chamber type of die-casting machine.
GRAIN FINENESS NUMBER (AFS). Approximately the number of mesh per inch of that sieve which would just pass the sample if its grains were of a uniform size. That is, the average of the sizes of grains in the sample. It is approximately proportional to the surface area per unit weight of sand, exclusive of clay.
GRAY CAST IRON. Cast iron which contains a relatively large percentage of its carbon in the form of graphite, and substantially all of the remainder of the carbon in the form of eutectoid carbide. Such material has a gray fracture.
GREEN CASTING. A casting in the as-cast unheat-treated, or unaged condition.
GREEN PERMEABILITY. The ability of a molded body of sand in a tempered condition to permit passage of gases through its mass.
GREEN SAND. A naturally-bonded sand or compounded molding sand mixture which has been tempered with water for use while still in the damp or wet condition.
GREEN STRENGTH. Strength of a tempered sand mixture at room temperature.
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