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Z94.17 - Work Design and Measurement

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PACE RATING. (See PERFORMANCE RATING.)

PARETO’S LAW. Sometimes called the law of the trivial many and the critical few. A principle which states that, in most activities, a small fraction (commonly estimated at 20%) of the total activity creates the major portion (commonly estimated at 80%) of the work, cost, profit, or other measure of importance. Syn: rule of 80-20 (q.v.).

PERFORMANCE. A measure of how much of a goal is achieved. May be called “worker performance”; how well the worker’s work time compared to the standard time; “group performance” would be similar. May also be called “productivity performance’’; how well the productivity achieved compared to the productivity goal set; “effectiveness performance” as a measure of what was accomplished compared to the goal set for results.

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION. A critical and objective appraisal of performance measurement data and related information to obtain an accurate picture of the overall status of a specific area or persons to ascertain exceptional accomplishments, identify shortcomings and their causative factors, and develop meaningful recommendations.

PERFORMANCE INDEX. The ratio of a performance standard established for a certain quantity of work to the performance actually achieved. When this ratio is equal to 1.00 (100%) the worker or group is meeting standard performance. (See OPERATOR PRODUCTIVITY.)

PERFORMANCE INDICATOR. A significant quantitative measure of performance which provides the best perspective of total management effort being applied in an area.

PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT. The assessment of accomplishments in terms of historical or objective standards or criteria. (See PERFORMANCE EVALUATION.)

PERFORMANCE RATING. (1) A process whereby an analyst evaluates observed operator performance in terms of a concept of normal performance expressed as benchmarks using APL/MPL concepts. (2) The performance rating factor. (Syns: leveling, pace rating, effort rating, objective rating, normal performance).

PERFORMANCE RATING FACTOR. The number (usually a percentage) representing the performance rating.

PERFORMANCE RATING SCALE. A numerical scale of performance which may or may not include defined benchmarks. For example, normal performance might be expressed as 100% or 60 minutes per hour. The 100% scale is the most common scale used.

PERFORMANCE RATIO. (See PERFORMANCE INDEX.)

PERFORMANCE SAMPLING. A technique for determining the performance rating factor to be applied to an operator or a group of operators determined by short randomly spaced observations of the performance.

PERFORMANCE STANDARD. A criterion or benchmark to which actual performance is compared.

PERSONAL ALLOWANCE. An allowance to provide time for the personal needs of the worker during the workday. (See ALLOWANCE.) Syn: personal time.

PERSONAL TIME. (See PERSONAL ALLOWANCE.)

PREDETERMINED MOTION TIME SYSTEM. (See PREDETERMINED TIME SYSTEM.)

PREDETERMINED TIME. (See PREDETERMINED TIME SYSTEM.)

PREDETERMINED TIME SYSTEM. An organized body of information, procedures, techniques, and motion times employed in the study and evaluation of manual work elements. The system is expressed in terms of the motions used, their general and specific nature, the conditions under which they occur, and their previously determined performance times. Syn: predetermined motion time system.

PRINCIPLES OF MOTION ECONOMY. A general listing of common sense steps and procedures to simplify and improve the effectiveness of manual work.

PROCESS. (1) A planned series of actions or operations (e.g., mechanical, electrical, chemical, inspection, test) which advances a material or procedure from one stage of completion to another. (2) A planned and controlled treatment that subjects materials or procedures to the influence of one or more types of energy (e.g., human, mechanical, electrical, chemical, thermal) for the time required to bring about the desired reactions or results.

PROCESS CHART. A graphic, symbolic representation of the specific steps in a processing activity. (See FLOW PROCESS CHART, OPERATION PROCESS CHART, MAN-PROCESS CHART, FLOWCHART, MULTIPLE ACTIVITY PROCESS CHART, OPERATOR PROCESS CHART.)

PROCESS CHART SYMBOLS. Graphical symbols or signs used on process charts to depict the type of events that occur during a process. (See FLOW PROCESS CHART.)

PROCESS DESIGN. The act of prescribing the production process to produce a product as designed. This may include specifying the equipment, tools, fixtures, machines, and the like required: the methods to be used: the personnel necessary; and the estimated or allowed times. (See METHODS ANALYSIS, PROCESS.)

PROCESS ENGINEER. An individual qualified by education, training, and/or experience to prescribe efficient production processes to safely produce a product as designed and who specializes in this work. This work includes specifying all the equipment, tools, fixtures, human job elements, and the like that are to be used and, often, the estimated cost of producing the product by the prescribed process. (See PROCESS, PROCESS DESIGN.)

PROCESSING. The carrying out of a production process. (See PROCESS.)

PROCESS PLANNING. A procedure for determining the operations or actions necessary to transform material from one state to another.

PROCESS SHEET. A sketch, diagram or listing of the operations in the sequential order necessary to accomplish the desired result (such as transforming material from one state to another).

PROCESS TIME. (1) Time required to complete the machine or process-controlled portion of a work cycle. (2) Time required to complete an entire process.

PRODUCTION STANDARD. (See STANDARD TIME.)

PRODUCTION STUDY. (1) A detailed analysis of a job, operation, process, or group of activities using the techniques of methods engineering and work measurement with the objective of improvement. (2) An extended time study to determine delay allowances or verify other major variables—sometimes called an eight-hour study.

PRODUCTIVE LABOR. (See DIRECT LABOR.)

PRODUCTIVE TIME. Time in which effective work is done in an operation or process, as opposed to nonproductive or idle time.

PRODUCTIVITY. (1) The ratio of output to total inputs. (2) The ratio of actual production to standard production, applicable to either an individual worker or a group of workers.

PRODUCTIVITY COMPANY LEVEL. Ratio of outputs to inputs relative to the whole of a company or part of a company independently serving the open economic market, compared to a similar ratio (using the same factors) for a previous period for the same company or part of a company.

PRODUCTIVITY, GROUP. Ratio of outputs to inputs relative to a generalized work area or function, e.g., materials handling, purchasing, warehousing, etc., compared to a similar ratio (using the same factors) for a previous period of the same work group.

PRODUCTIVITY INDEX. (See PRODUCTIVITY.)

PRODUCTIVITY, NATIONAL. An estimate of the total “value” of outputs of a country, compared to the totality of inputs, all compared to a similar ratio for some base period. The word “estimate” is used because it is most unlikely that the final value will be estimated from a sample of firms; it is unlikely that we will have universal reporting. The word “value” is in quotation marks because the basis of value is not a scientific measurement; we must assign the unit of value.

PRODUCTIVITY, WORKPLACE. Ratio of outputs to inputs relative to a single workplace, compared to a similar ratio (using the same factors) for a previous period at the same workplace.

PROFIT SHARING PLAN. An arrangement under which an organization pays or makes available to employees, subject to eligibility rules, in addition to regular remuneration, special current or deferred sums of money based on the profits of the organization.

PROGRESS CHART. A graphical representation of the status or extent of completion of work in process. (See GANTT CHART.)

PROGRESS CURVE. A plot of work accomplished or productive output versus time. May be accompanied by a plot of expected or planned output for comparison purposes. Syn: learning curve

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