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Z94.17 - Work Design and Measurement

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DAY WORK. Work for which pay is based on time worked as contrasted to pay based on performance.

DECIMAL-HOUR STOPWATCH. A timing device with two hands whose movement may be started, stopped, or reset to zero by depressing control buttons on the perimeter of the watch case. A small dial is calibrated in hundredths of an hour and a large dial is calibrated in ten-thousandths of an hour. Thus, the time interval may be read in decimal hours to four decimal places.

DECIMAL-MINUTE STOPWATCH. A timing device with two hands whose movement may be started, stopped, or reset to zero by depressing control buttons on the perimeter of the watch case. A small dial is calibrated in whole minutes and a large dial is calibrated in hundredths of a minute. Thus, the time interval may be read in decimal minutes to two decimal places.

DELAY. A pause or interruption in the scheduled work activity of the employee, machine, or product flow. (See AVOIDABLE DELAY, UNAVOIDABLE DELAY, INHERENT DELAY.) Syns: interruption, stoppage.

DELAY ALLOWANCE. (1) A time increment to allow for contingencies and minor delays beyond the control of the operator. May be included in a time standard as a percentage or as a discrete time value. (2) A separate credit (in time or money) to compensate the operator on incentive for a specific instance of delay not covered by the piece rate or standard. (See UNAVOIDABLE DELAY ALLOWANCE.)

DELAY TIME. A period during which an employee is idle due to breakdown of equipment, lack of tools or materials, or any other factor beyond personal control. (See DOWNTIME, IDLETIME.)

DIAGNOSTIC STUDY. A brief investigation or cursory methods study of an operation, process, group, or individual to discover causes of operational difficulties or problems for which more detailed remedial studies may be feasible. An appropriate work measurement technique may be used to evaluate alternatives or to locate major areas requiring improvement. Syn: survey.

DID-TAKE STANDARDS. Are established time standards based on historical data without the use of performance rating or benchmark references. Did-Take standards are based on actual time taken to perform given tasks. (See SHOULD-TAKE STANDARDS, NORMAL PERFORMANCE, BASE PRODUCTIVITY FACTOR).

DIFFERENTIAL TIMING. The time study technique used to obtain the time value of an element of extremely short duration. It consists of: (1) obtaining cycle values, first including and then excluding the element for which the time is required, and obtaining the required element time by subtraction; (2) timing the element by combining it with preceding and/or following elements in successive cycles and then obtaining the time for the short element by subtraction.

DIRECT LABOR. (1) Work which is readily chargeable to or identifiable with a specific product. (2) Work performed on a product or service that advances the product or service towards its completion or objectives.

DIRECT LABOR STANDARD. A standard time set on a direct labor operation. (See DIRECT LABOR.)

DISCONTINUOUS TIMING. (See REPETITIVE TIMING.)

DIVISION OF LABOR. The separation of jobs or tasks into less complex jobs or tasks usually to allow use of workers possessing less skill than that required by the overall job or task, or to make use of special skills. Syn: division of work.

DOWNGRADE. (1) The lowering of a particular job in scope, authority, responsibility, degree of difficulty, etc., with a possible reduction in wage or salary. (2) Dilution of skills required for the task. (See DIVISION OF LABOR.)

DOWNTIME. A period of time during which an operation is halted or delayed due to the lack of materials, a machinery breakdown, or similar occurrences. 

DROP DELIVERY. (1) The movement of a component or object to some location where it is merely let go rather than being placed where it is to go. (2) Provisions in a workplace for disposal of objects by dropping.

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