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Z94.16 - Quality Assurance & Reliability

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BETWEEN-LOT (OR BETWEEN-BATCH) VARIATION.  Dispersion of the lot or batch averages of the observations or test results over several lots or batches.  NOTE: The between-batch variation will include a component of within-batch variation which can be reduced by increasing the within-batch sample size.  [2: 3.1.4]

BIAS.  The difference between the expectation of the test results and an accepted reference value.  Note: Bias is the total systematic error as contrasted to random error.  There may be one or more systematic error components contributing to the bias.  A larger systematic difference from the accepted reference value is reflected by a larger bias value. [1: 3.13]

BIAS OF ESTIMATOR.  The difference between the expected value of the estimator and the parameter that is to be estimated. [2: 2.54]

BLEMISH.  An imperfection that occurs with a severity sufficient to cause awareness but that should not cause any real impairment with respect to intended normal, or reasonably foreseeable, usage requirements.

BULK SAMPLING.  Sampling of materials in lots within which sampling units are not initially readily distinguishable. Examples: The sampling of a large bulk of coal for ash content or calorific value, or tobacco for moisture content. [2: 2.1.9]

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