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Z94.15 - Organization Planning and Theory

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PARTICIPATION. The process by which people contribute ideas toward the solution of problems affecting the organization and their jobs. The actions by which managers involve their subordinates in the decision making process. It is a second principle for productivity gainsharing and generally provides a formal structure for such "involvement."

PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT. A philosophy and system of management in which employees at one or many hierarchical levels of an organization share in setting goals, making decisions, and solving problems. The degree of employee influence in the decision-making process may range from simply advice-giving to full authority for decisions. Various organizational arrangements may be used such as advisory committees, labor-management committees, workers' councils, self-managed work teams, and employee representatives on governing boards.

PERSONAL/HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (P/HRM). A function performed in organizations which facilitates the most effective use of people (employees) to achieve organizations and individual goals. Terms used interchangeably with P/HRM include personnel, human resource management, and employee development.

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT. The function of acquiring, developing, motivating, and maintaining a competent work force so that the objectives of the organization are properly achieved and so that the members of this work force obtain satisfaction from their participation in their organization.

PLAN. A predetermined course of action over a specified period of time which represents a projected response to an anticipated environment in order to accomplish a specific set of adaptive objectives.

PLANNING. Planning is the process whereby an individual or an organization identifies opportunities, needs, strategies, objectives and policies that are used to guide and manage the organization through future periods. All planning consists of a) accumulation of information, b) sorting and relating bits of information and beliefs, c) establishing premises, d) forecasting future conditions, e) establishing needs, f) identifying opportunities, g) establishing objectives and policies, h) structuring alternative courses of action, i) ranking or selecting total systems of action which will achieve the best balance of ultimate (future) and immediate objectives, j) establishing criteria and means for measuring adherence to the selected program of action and k) so managing the organization to achieve the objectives. Some kinds of planning include short and long range planning, product planning, financial planning, etc.

POLICY. The verbal, written, or implied general plans of action that guide the members of the organization in the conduct of its operation, and incorporating in them broad premise and limitations within which further planning activities take place.

POLITICS. The network of human behaviors and interactions by which social power is acquired, transferred, and exercised.

POWER. The ability to influence the behavior of other persons by any or all of the following means: a) coercion-the application or threat of use of physical sanctions, or use of force to control satisfactions of basic human wants such as food, shelter, comfort and the like, b) control of material rewards such as pay and benefits, c) use of symbolic rewards and penalties via leadership, communication, allocation of prestige symbols, ritual, persuasion, and suggestion. (Adapted from Amitai Etzioni, A Comparative Analysis of Complex Organizations, the Free Press of Glencoe, Inc., 1961, p. 4-5).

PRODUCTIVITY. The quantitative and qualitative result of the input of all resources. The most widely used productivity measure is one-dimensional (one measure of input and one measure of output) that defines it as productivity-is output per labor input (e.g., number of trees planted per employee hour, etc.). A broader and more modern view involves the relationship of an overall measure of output to the sum of two or more input factors; i.e., Labor, Materials, Capital, Energy, etc.

PRODUCTIVITY GAINSHARING. A motivational process based on developing a method of measuring organizational productivity changes from an historical base period, converting the "gain" to monetary terms, and "sharing" it between the employees and the company. It is based on four principles: Identification, Participation, Equity, and Competent Management.

PROFESSION. A profession is a type of occupation whose work, values, and members ideally conform to the following criteria: a) It requires advanced, specialized formal education and training as distinguished from general academic education or an apprenticeship. b) Professional work requires the consistent exercise of discretion, judgment, and personal responsibility. c) It is based upon a deep and organized body of knowledge. Efforts are continually made to expand the knowledge through research. d) The profession, if advanced and regulated by a national level association of its members which helps establish standards for entry into the profession, establishes standards of ethical practice by members of the profession, and applies sanctions where these standards are violated. e) The members of the profession ideally maintain a social consciousness and sense of trusteeship toward their clients, employers, and the general public. They seek to maintain and update their knowledge and skills in keeping with advances in their field of work.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT. An organizational form that is generally superimposed upon a traditional functional organizational structure. Integrated teams of specialists work under the coordination and direction of a project manager to accomplish a project of limited duration. The project manager coordinates and manages across functional and organizational lines to complete a specific project or program. (See MATRIX MANAGEMENT.)

PROJECT TEAM. (See TASK FORCE.)

PSYCHOLOGICAL SCHOOL OF JOB DESIGN. Redesigning jobs to increase employee satisfaction and motivation.

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