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OBJECTIVE. A desired end result, condition, or goal which forms a basis for managerial decision-making. (See MEANS-ENDS ANALYSIS.)
OFFICE OF PRESIDENT (OF CHAIRMAN). An arrangement in which the office of the chief executive consists of more than one executive. This organizational device is sometimes used in very large corporations and typically consists of three to five senior executives who perform collaboratively to make top level decisions and plans. One of these is the chief executive who is accountable to the board of directors.
ORGANIZATION. (1) The classification or groupings of the activities of an enterprise for the purpose of administering them. Division of work to be done into defined tasks along with the assignment of these tasks to individuals or groups of individuals qualified for their efficient accomplishment. (2) Determining the necessary activities and positions within an enterprise, department, or group, arranging them into the best functional relationships, clearly defining the authority, responsibilities and duties of each, and assigning them to individuals so that the available effort can be effectively and systematically applied and coordinated.
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR (OB). A field of knowledge and inquiry concerned with the systematic study of organizations; their origins, growth, and effect upon individual members, constituent groups, and other organizations. Organizational behavior is equally concerned with individual behavior, group processes, attitudes and motivations, communication, and the effect of these upon organizational performance.
ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE. The multidimensional set of properties of the work environment, perceived directly or indirectly by employees, and assumed to be a major force in influencing their attitudes, motivation, and behavior. The perceived quality and configuration of organizational climate is usually assessed along dimensions such as structure, responsibility, team spirit, standards, warmth-support, rewards, organizational clarity, etc.
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE. A pattern of beliefs, values, and assumptions learned and transmitted by organizational members as an effective way of life for adapting to external forces an coping with internal problems.
ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN. The structural pattern of an organizational which includes the rationale for grouping specialized tasks, locating decision centers, facilitating coordination, and other provisions.
ORGANIZATION CHART. A diagram or graphic representation of an organization which shows, to varying degrees, functions, responsibilities, people, authority and relationships among these. May be used for recording the promotability of individual managers and for orderly planning for succession.
ORGANIZATION CULTURE. The rules, jargon, prejudices, customs, and other traditions that clarify acceptable and unacceptable behavior in an organization.
ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT (OD). The planned, organization-wide process of change designed to improve organization effectiveness and adaptation (to changing environmental demands). This is accomplished through planned interventions by an internal or external agent (change agent) using theory and techniques of applied behavioral science. Although the planned interventions or strategies depend on the circumstances and diagnosis, the focus has usually been on the attitudes, norms, values, relations, and organizational climate, rather than on the goals, structure, and technology of the organization. Lately, however, more and more attention has been given to the interplay of structure, technology, and people variables. Techniques employed by OD change agents include sensitivity training, managerial grid applications, goal-setting sessions, team building, confrontation meetings, and interpersonal peacemaking, to name some of the more important ones. Note that OD is much more comprehensive than management development, which is focused only on a particular manager or group of managers in order to change individual managerial behavior. (See CHANGE AGENT.)
ORGANIZATION, FORMAL. A planned and established structure of relationships among people, designed to achieve specified objectives. Thus one may speak of the formal organization of a company, government agency, school or hospital.
ORGANIZATION FOR QUALITY. Structuring organizational activities to effectively serve the accomplishment of the company's customer, quality, innovation, and cycle time objectives.
ORGANIZATION, INFORMAL. The type of organization structure which comprises the authority, responsibility, and communicative and associative relationships among functions, physical factors, and personnel that are supplemental to the "formal" organization structure and may be "for," "against," or "neutral" with regard to the achievement of organizational objectives. It develops spontaneously.
ORGANIZATION PLANNING. The process of planning and designing the organization structure and providing for appropriate interrelationships among people and constituent units. Often involves analysis of goals, grouping of activities, making audits, planning organizational changes, and preparation of policy manuals. May involve manpower planning, training and development of management personnel.
ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE. A framework within which the dynamics of human relations forces take form and come into interaction. A plan under which the totality is subdivided, and job duties, personal relations and lines of authority are specified.
ORGANIZATION THEORY. That branch of study concerned with identification and analysis of the strategic variables and relationships of structure and process involving groups of people engaged in coordinated, purposeful activities over meaningful spans of time.
ORGANIZING. The process of determining the work to be done, grouping work into appropriate units, and defining the desired relationships among people so that the entire body can pursue identified goals.
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