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Z94.15 - Organization Planning and Theory

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HAWTHORNE EFFECT. The novelty or interest in a changed situation which leads, at least initially, to positive results. In the original Hawthorne Studies, this effect was revealed in terms of increased performance resulting from the workers' knowledge that they were being observed with interest by behavioral science researchers, that they were treated as being important, and that their inputs were being taken into consideration. More recent analyses of this 1920's data suggest the interactions in this study of lighting levels and employee productivity are much more complicated.

HIERARCHY. A ranking or ordering of those in authority.

HOMEOSTATIC SYSTEM. Any cybernetic system so arranged as to maintain one particular state or to maintain equilibrium among its component parts.

HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING. A relatively recent development in management which refers to expanding the accounting procedures of organizations in order to take into consideration the human assets along with capital assets. This represents a shift from thinking of organizational members (employees) as costs to regarding them as assets.

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING. The process that helps to provide adequate human resources to achieve future organizational objectives.  It includes forecasting future needs for employees of various types, accompanying these needs with the present work force, and determining the numbers of types of employees to be recruited or phased out of the organization's employments group.

HYGIENE FACTORS. Those factors - such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary - that, when present in a job, placate workers.  When these factors are present, people will not be dissatisfied.

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