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Z94.14 - Operations & Inventory Planning & Control

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BACK FLUSH. A method of recording issues from inventory by exploding the bill of material for the next higher assembly and deducting the result from the on-hand inventory record. This can be done when the next higher assembly is released or completed.

BACKLOG. All of the customer orders booked, i.e., orders taken but not yet shipped. Sometimes referred to as "open orders" or the "order board."

BACKORDER. An unfilled customer order or commitment treated as an immediate or past due demand against an item whose inventory is insufficient to satisfy the demand. (See STOCKOUT.)

BACKWARD SCHEDULING. A technique in which the schedule is computed starting with the due date for the order and working backward to determine the required start date. This can generate negative times, thereby identifying where time must be made up. (See FORWARD SCHEDULING.)

BASE SERIES. A standard series of demand-over-time observations used in forecasting seasonal items. This series of factors is usually based upon the relative level of demand during the corresponding period of previous years. The average value of the base series over a twelve-month period will be 1.0. The base series is superimposed upon the average demand trend for the item. Syn: base index.

BATCH PROCESS. A manufacturing approach in which product or products are manufactured repetitively, but in specific sized batches or lots.

BILL OF CAPACITY. (See PRODUCT LOAD PROFILE.)

BILL OF LABOR. (See PRODUCT LOAD PROFILE.)

BILL OF MATERIAL (BOM). A listing of all the subassemblies, parts, raw materials, components, bulk products, etc. that go into a parent assembly showing the quantity of each required. There are a variety of BOM formats including single level, indented, modular (planning), transient, matrix, costed, addended, pseudo, etc. Syn: assembly list.

BILL OF MATERIAL PROCESSOR. Computer applications supplied by many software manufacturers for maintaining, updating, and retrieving bill of material information.

BILL OF MATERIAL STRUCTURING. The process of organizing bills of material to perform specific functions such as scheduling, inventorying and assemblying. (See PLANNING BILL OF MATERIAL, TRANSIENT BILL OF MATERIAL.)

BILL OF RESOURCES. (See PRODUCT LOAD PROFILE.)

BIN LOCATION FILE. A file that specifically identifies the physical location where each item in inventory is stored. Often the file also maintains quantity information by location.

BIN RESERVE SYSTEM. (See TWO BIN SYSTEM.)

BLANKET ORDER. A long-term commitment to a vendor for material against which short-term releases will be generated to satisfy requirements.

BLENDING. The process of physically mixing two or more lots of material to produce a homogeneous lot. Blends normally receive new identification and require retesting.

BLOW-THROUGH. (See TRANSIENT BILL OF MATERIAL.)

BOOK INVENTORY. An accounting definition of inventory units or value obtained from perpetual inventory records rather than from actual count.

BOOK INVENTORY. (See BILL OF MATERIAL.)

BOTTLENECK. A facility, function, department, etc., that impedes production. For example, a machine or work center where jobs arrive at a faster rate than they leave.

BRANCH WAREHOUSE DEMAND. (See WAREHOUSE DEMAND.)

BUCKETED SYSTEM. An MRP system in which all time-phased data are displayed in accumulated time periods or "buckets." If the period of accumulation is one week, then the system would be said to have weekly buckets. (See BUCKETLESS SYSTEM, TIME BUCKET, HORIZONTAL DISPLAY, VERTICAL DISPLAY.)

BUCKETLESS SYSTEM. An MRP system in which all time-phased data are received, stored, processed and reported by specific dates and not in time buckets. (See BUCKETED SYSTEM, TIME BUCKET, HORIZONTAL DISPLAY, VERTICAL DISPLAY.)

BULK ISSUE. The issuance or transfer of parts or materials from their primary storage location to a secondary point-of-use location or directly to work-in-process inventory.

BUSINESS PLAN. A statement of income projections, costs, and profits usually accompanied by a budget, projected balance sheet, and cash flow statement. It is usually stated in terms of dollars only. The business plan and the production plan, although frequently stated in different terms, should be in agreement with each other. (See MANUFACTURING RESOURCE PLANNING.)

BUYER. An individual whose functions may include vendor selection, negotiation, order placement, vendor follow-up, measurement and control of vendor performance, value analysis, evaluation of new materials and processes, etc. In some companies, the functions of order placement and vendor follow-up are handled by the vendor scheduler. (See VENDOR SCHEDULER.)

BUYER/PLANNER. (See VENDOR SCHEDULER.)

BUYING CAPACITY. (See CAPACITY BUYING.)

BY-PRODUCT. A material of value produced as residual of or incidental to the production process. Ratio of by-product to primary product is usually fixed.  By-products may be recycled, sold as is or used for other purposes. Syn: co-product.

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