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Z94.11 MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

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SATURATION. A range within which the output is constant regardless of input.

SCHEDULE. A listing of jobs to be processed through a work center, department, or plant and their respective start dates as well as other related information.

SCHEDULING. The process of setting operation start dates for jobs to allow them to be completed by their due date.

SCRAP. (1) Fragments of stock removed from a part during production. (2) A rejected or discarded part.

SCRAP ALLOWANCE. A factor that expresses the quantity of a particular component that is expected to be scrapped while that component is being built into a given assembly. Also, a factor that expresses the amount of raw material needed in excess of the exact calculated requirement to produce a given quantity of a part.

SCRAP USAGE. The expected average quantity of an item to be scrapped each period.

SELF COMPLIANT ARM FOR ROBOT ASSEMBLY (SCARA) ROBOT. A robot that uses a linear axis joint to achieve vertical displacement and two or more parallel revolute joints (with axes of rotation perpendicular to the horizontal plane) to achieve end-effector positions in a horizontal plane.

SENSOR. A transducer or other device whose input is a physical phenomenon and whose output is a quantitative measure of that physical phenomenon.


SEQUENCE ROBOT. A robot whose motion trajectory follows a preset sequence of positional changes.

SERVOMECHANISM. An automatic control mechanism consisting of a motor driven by a signal that is a function of the difference between commanded position and/or rate and measured actual position and/or rate.

SERVOVALVE. A transducer whose input is a low-energy signal and whose output is a high-energy fluid flow that is proportional to the low energy signal.

SETTLING TIME. The time for a damped oscillatory response to decay within some given limit.

SETUP. The process of making a machine or work cell ready to operate or perform a particular function.

SETUP TIME. Time required to change over a machine, removing tooling and attaching the new tooling to make a particular product.

SHOP FLOOR CONTROL. The system which monitors shop operations, such as product flow, machine status, and order completion.

SHORT-TERM REPEATABILITY. Closeness of agreement of position movements, repeated under the same conditions during a short time interval, to the same location.

SHOULDER. The manipulator arm linkage joint that is attached to the base.

SIMULATION. The representation of certain features of the behavior of a physical or abstract system by the behavior of another system, typically a physical or computer model.

SLEW RATE. (1) The maximum velocity at which a manipulator joint can move; a rate imposed by saturation somewhere in the servo loop controlling that joint (e.g., by a valve's reaching its maximum open setting). (2) The maximum speed at which the tool tip can move in an inertial Cartesian frame.

SOLENOID. A cylindrical coil of wire surrounding a movable core which, when energized, sets up a magnetic feld and draws in the core.

SPAN TIME. Actual time from part design to the completion of the finished product.

SPHERICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM. A coordinate system, two of whose dimensions are angles, the third being a linear distance from the point of origin. These three coordinates specify a point on a sphere.

SPLIT LOT. A production order quantity that has been divided into two or more smaller quantities, usually after the order is in process.

SPRINGBACK. The deflection of a body when external load is removed. May refer to deflection of the end effector of a manipulator arm.

STANDARD. An accepted criterion or an established measure for performance, practice, or design.

STATIC ACCURACY. (1) Deviation from time value when relevant variables are not changing with time. (2) Difference between actual position response and position desired or commanded of an automatic control system as determined in the steady state, i.e., when all transient responses have decayed.

STATIC MODEL. A model, or representation, that ignores the effects of time on the process.

STATION. A physical location where a part normally stops either to have an operation performed on it or to wait for clearance to proceed to the next station.

STEPPING MOTOR. An electric motor whose windings are arranged in such a way that the armature can be made to step in discrete rotational increments (typically 1/ 200th of a revolution) when a digital pulse is applied to an accompanying "driver" circuit. The armature displacement will stay locked in this angular position independent of applied torque, up to a limit.

STIFFNESS. The risistance to displacement when an object has a force applied to it.
STOP. A mechanical constraint or limit on some motion which can be set up to stop the motion at a desired point.

STRAIN GAUGE. A sensor that, when cemented to elastic materials, measures very small amounts of stretch by the change in its electrical resistance. When used on materials with high modules of elasticity, strain gauges become force sensors.

SUBASSEMBLY. An assembly which is used at a higher level to make up another assembly.

SUPERVISORY CONTROL. A control scheme whereby a person or computer monitors and intermittently reprograms, sets subgoals, or adjusts control parameters of a lower-level automatic controller, while the lower-level controller performs the control task continuously in real time.

SUPINATION. Orientation or motion toward a position with the front, or unprotected side, facing up or exposed.

SYNCHRO. A shaft encoder based upon differential inductive coupling between an energized rotor coil and field coils positioned at different shaft angles.

SYNCHRONOUS. Operating according to an overall timing source, i.e., at regular intervals.

SYSTEM. An organized collection of personnel, machines, and methods required to accomplish a set of specific functions.

SYSTEM DESIGN. The arrangement of a group of functionally distinct devices, components, and computer programs which regularly interact and which are interdependent and meet specific performance levels.

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS. The study of collection of interacting entities, with emphasis on their operation as a whole.


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