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CABLE DRIVE. Transmission of power from an actuator to a remote mechanism by means of flexible cable and pulleys.

CALIBRATION. (1) The act of determining, marking, or rectifying the capacity or scale graduations of a measuring instrument or replicating machine. (2) Determination of the deviation from standard so as to ascertain the proper correction factors.

CAMAC. Computer-assisted measurement and control.

CAPACITY. The highest sustainable output rate that can be achieved with the current product specifications product mix, worker effort, plant, and equipment.

CAPACITY LOADING. Work center loading where work will be rescheduled into other time periods if capacity is not available for it in the required time period.

CAPACITY PLANNING. The function of setting the limits or levels of manufacturing operations in the future, consideration being given to sales forecasts and the requirements and availability of people, machines, materials, and money.

CAPACITY REQUIREMENTS. The projected future production capacity needs expressed in terms of people, machines, and facilities.

CAPITAL TOOLING. Jigs, fixtures, dies, and ancillary support tooling that require tool design and construction.

CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM.  A coordinate system whose axes or dimensions are three intersecting perpendicular straight lines and whose origin is the intersection.

CELL. Collection of manufacturing operations and machines consisting of a number of work stations, operators, specialized tooling, materials-transport mechanisms and decouplers to make a family of parts.

CELL CONTROL. A module in the control hierarchy that controls a cell. The cell-control module is controlled by a center control module, if one exists. Otherwise it is controlled by the factory-control level.

CELLULAR MANUFACTURING. Organization of manufacturing equipment into groups according to function and inter-machine relationships to process a family of parts.

CENTER. Manufacturing unit consisting of a number of cells and the materials transport and storage buffers that interconnect them.

CENTER CONTROL. A module of the control hierarchy that controls a center. The center-control module is controlled by the factory-controlled level.

CHAIN DRIVE. Transmission of power from an actuator to a remote mechanism by means of flexible chain and mating-toothed sprocket wheels.

CHANGE ORDER. A formal notification that an order must be changed in some form. This can either result from a changed date or specification by the customer, an engineering change, or a change in inventory requirement date.

CLASSIFICATION. A process in which items are separated into groups based on the presence or absence of characteristic attributes.

CLOCK RATE. The speed (frequency) at which the processor operates, as determined by the rate at which words or bits are transferred through internal logic sequences.

CLOSED LOOP CONTROL. Control achieved by a closed feedback loop, i.e., by measuring the degree to which actual system response conforms to desired system response and utilizing the difference to drive the system into conformance.

CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM. A system in which the output or some result of the output is measured and fed back to the control for comparison with the input.

CODING. A process of establishing symbols to be used for meaningful communications.

COMMAND LANGUAGE. A source language consisting primarily of procedural operators, each capable of invoking a function to be executed.

COMMON PARTS. Parts which are used in two or more products or models.

COMMUNICATIONS LINK. Any mechanism for the transmission of information, usually electrical.

COMPENSATION. Logical operations employed in a control scheme to counteract dynamic lags or otherwise to modify the transformation between measured signals and controller output to produce prompt stable response.

COMPLIANCE. (l) The quality or state of bending or deforming to stresses within the elastic limit. (2) The amount of displacement per unit of applied force. (3) Slight mechanical motion to accommodate a fit or interference with motion.

COMPONENT. An inclusive term used to describe a subassembly or part that goes into higher level assemblies.

COMPOSITE COMPONENT. A hypothetical component which contains all the features that exist in a part family.

COMPOSITE ROUTING. A routing that lists a group of operations which are needed to produce a family of items, but which are not used for all items. The operations used depend on the characteristics of each particular item. (See group technology).

COMPUTED PATH CONTROL. A control scheme wherein the path of the manipulator end point is computed to achieve a desired result in conformance to a given criterion, an acceleration limit, a minimum time, etc.

COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (CAD). Any system that uses a computer to assist in the creation or modification of a design, typically including drafting.

COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN/COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING (CAD/CAM). A technology of using computers to perform certain functions in design and manufacturing where a data base is shared by both functions.

COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING (CAE). The use of computers in all aspects of engineering design, analysis and manufacturing functions.

COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING (CAM). The effective utilization of computer technology in the management, control, and operations of the manufacturing facility through either direct or indirect computer interface with the physical and human resources of the company.

COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS PLANNING (CAPP). The use of computers in the preparation of process plans for a piece part or assembly. CAPP approaches are generally classified as variant and generative.

COMPUTER-INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING (CIM). The use of computers in all aspects of manufacturing, with integration of function and control in a hierarchy of computer systems.

COMPUTER NETWORK. A complex consisting of two or more interconnected computing units.

COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL (CNC). The operation of machine tools and other processing machines by a series of coded instructions, executed by a computer with interface supporting the machine tool functions.

CONCURRENT ENGINEERING. Philosophy and approach to product design that promotes interactive design and manufacturing efforts to develop product and process as nearly to simultaneously as possible.

CONFIGURATION CONTROL.  A means of ensuring that the product being built and shipped corresponds to the product ordered and designed.

CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT. A system, usually software, for implementing configuration control through coordination of design and production documents.

CONTACT SENSOR.  A device capable of sensing mechanical contact of the hand or some other part of a robot with an external object.

CONTINUOUS PATH CONTROL. A discriminable control scheme whereby the inputs or commands specify every point along a desired path of motion.

CONTROLLER. A device that uses predetermined procedures or rules to control a machine.

COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE (CMM). An automatic inspection machine consisting of a contact probe and a means of positioning it in a three-dimensional space relative to the surfaces of a geometric shope to be inspected.

COORDINATED AXIS CONTROL. (1)  Control wherein the axes of a robot arrive at their respective end points simultaneously, giving a smooth appearance to the motiom. (2) Control wherein the motions of the axes are such that the end point moves along a pre-specified type of path (line, circle, etc.) Also called end-point control.

COUNTER. (1) In relay-panel hardware, an electro-mechanical device which can be wired and preset to control other devices according to the total cycles of one on and offfunction. (2) In programmable controllers (PC), a logical analog of the electro-mechanical device internal to the processor.

CRITICAL ITEMS.  Items that have a lead time longer than the normal planning span time, or items whose scarcity may impose a limit on production.

CRITICAL RATIO. A dynamic priority technique where job priorities are recalculated at regular intervals based on the progress the job has made through production and the current need date.

CRITICAL RATIO SCHEDULING.  The sequencing of jobs in the queue of a work center in accordance with their critical ratio priorities.

CRITICAL WORK CENTER. (1) A work center that is working close to its maximum capacity or where a bottleneck (overload) occurs. (2) A work center that processes the work of an important part of the plant or product line, or one where a breakdown would be critical, or one that consists of a machine with unique characteristics for which an alternate is not available.

CUTTER PATH. The moving path of a machining cutter in relation to a work-piece.

CYLINDRICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM. A procedure used to specify a point on a cylinder in three dimensions, two linear and one angular.

CYCLE TIME. The span of time necessary to produce an item on one machine, or the period of time from starting one machine operation to starting another (in a pattern of continuous repetition).

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