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TACTICAL CONTROL. A control type concerning mainly middle managers that focuses on assessing the implementation of tactical plans at department levels, monitoring associated periodic results, and taking corrective action as necessary.
TACTICAL GOALS. Targets or future end results usually set by middle management for specific departments or units.
TACTICAL PLANS. The means charted to support implementation of the strategic plan and achievement of tactical goals; such plans are developed by middle management, sometimes in consultation with lower management.
TAKEOVER. A form of acquisition involving the purchase of a controlling share of voting stock in a publicly-traded company and thus a potential reason for organizational termination.
TALL STRUCTURE. A structure that has many hierarchical levels and narrow spans of control.
TARIFF. A type of trade barrier in the form of a customs duty or tax levied mainly on imports.
TASK ENVIRONMENT. The segment of the external environment made up of the specific outside elements with which an organization interfaces in the course of conducting its business.
TASK FORCE. A temporary group usually formed to make recommendations on a specific issue.
TASK GROUP. A formal group that is created for a specific purpose that supplements or replaces work normally done by command groups.
TASK IDENTITY. Core job characteristics involving the degree to which a job allows the completion of a major identifiable piece of work, rather than just a fragment.
TASK SIGNIFICANCE. A core job characteristic involving the extent to which the worker sees the job output as having an important impact on others.
TEAM. A temporary or ongoing group whose members are charged with working together to identify problems, form a consensus about what should be done, and implement necessary actions in relation to a particular task or organizational area.
TEAM BUILDING. An intervention aimed at helping work groups become effective at task accomplishment.
TECHNICAL SKILLS. Key management abilities that reflect both an understanding of and a proficiency in a specialized field.
TECHNOLOGICAL ELEMENT. The part of the mega-environment that reflects the current state of knowledge regarding the production of products and services.
TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING. A type of forecasting aimed primarily at predicting long-term trends in technology and other important aspects of the environment.
TECHNOLOGICAL INTERDEPENDENCE. The degree to which different parts of the organization must exchange information and materials in order to perform their required activities.
TECHNOLOGICAL TRANSFER. The transmission of technology from those who possess it to those who do not.
TECHNOLOGY. The knowledge, tools, equipment, and work techniques used by an organization in delivering its product or service.
TECHNOSTRUCTURAL ACTIVITIES. An intervention involving activities intended to improve work technology and/or organization structure.
TELECOMMUTING. A form of working at home that is made possible by using computer technology to remain in touch with the office.
THEORY Z. A concept that combines positive aspects of American and Japanese management into a modified approach aimed at increasing U.S. managerial effectiveness while remaining compatible with the norms and values of American society and culture.
THIRD-PARTY INTERVENTION. A technique concerned with helping individuals, groups, or departments resolve serious conflicts that may relate to specific work issues or may be caused by suboptimal interpersonal relations.
TIME-SERIES METHODS. Methods of quantitative forecasting that use historical data to develop forecasts of the future.
TOP-DOWN BUDGETING. A process of developing budgets in which top management outlines the overall figures and middle and lower-level managers plan accordingly.
TOP MANAGERS. Managers at the very top levels of the hierarchy who are ultimately responsible for the entire organization.
TOTAL-FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY. A productivity approach which measures organizational productivity by considering all the inputs involved in producing outputs.
TOTAL QUALITY CONTROL (TQC). A quality control approach that emphasizes organizationwide commitment, integration of quality improvement efforts with organizational goals, and inclusion of quality as a factor in performance appraisals.
TRADE ASSOCIATIONS. Organizations that are composed of individuals or firms with common business concerns and which have environmental influence.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT. A planned effort to facilitate employee learning of job-related behaviors in order to improve employee performance.
TRAITS. Distinctive internal qualities or characteristics of an individual, such as physical characteristics, personality characteristics, skills and abilities, and social factors.
TRANSACTION-PROCESSING SYSTEM (TPS). A computer-based information system that executes and records the day-to-day routine transactions required to conduct an organization’s business.
TRANSACTIONAL LEADERS. Leaders who motivate subordinates to perform at expected levels by helping them recognize task responsibilities, identify goals, acquire confidence about meeting desired performance levels, and understand how their needs and the rewards that they desire are linked to goal achievement.
TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES. The components of an organizational system comprising the organization’s managerial and technological abilities that are applied to convert inputs into outputs.
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS. Leaders who motivate individuals to perform beyond normal expectations by inspiring subordinates to focus on broader missions that transcend their own immediate self-interests, to concentrate on intrinsic higher level goals rather than extrinsic lower-level goals, and to have confidence in their abilities to achieve the extraordinary missions articulated by the leader.
TURNAROUND. A defensive strategy design to reverse a negative trend and restore the organization to appropriate levels of profitability.
TWO-FACTOR THEORY. A content theory of motivation (developed by Frederick Herzberg) which argues that potential rewards fit into two categories, hygiene factors and motivators, each having distinctly different implications for employee motivation.
TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION. The communication that results when the communication process explicitly includes feedback.
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