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Z94.10 Management

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NATIONAL RESPONSIVENESS STRATEGY. A strategy of allowing subsidiaries to have substantial latitude in adapting products and services to suit the particular needs and political realities of the countries in which they operate.

NATURAL SELECTION MODEL. (See POPULATION ECOLOGY MODEL.)

NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT (NACH). The desire to accomplish challenging tasks and achieve a standard of excellence in one’s work.

NEED FOR AFFILIATION (NAFF). The desire to maintain warm, friendly relationships with others.

NEED FOR POWER (NPOW). The desire to influence others and control one’s environment.

NEEDS ANALYSIS. An assessment of an organization’s training needs that is developed by considering overall organizational requirements, tasks associated with jobs for which training is needed, and the degree to which individuals are able to perform those tasks effectively.

NEGATIVE ENTROPY. The ability of open systems to bring in new energy in the form of inputs and feedback from the environment in order to delay or arrest entropy.

NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT. A type of reinforcement in behavior modification, aimed at increasing a desired behavior, that involves providing a noxious stimuli so that an individual will engage in the desired behavior in order to stop the noxious stimuli.

NEGATIVE SYNERGY. The result that occurs when group process losses are greater than any gains achieved from combining the forces of group members.

NEGOTIATING CONTRACTS. An approach to influencing the environment that involves seeking favorable agreements on matters of importance to the organization.

NETWORK. A management process element consisting of a set of cooperative relationships with individuals whose help is needed in order for a manager to function effectively.

NETWORK DIAGRAM. A diagram constructed as a step in setting up PERT that constitutes a graphic depiction of the interrelationships among the activities in a project.

NEUTRALIZERS. Situational factors that make it impossible for a given leader behavior to have an impact on subordinate performance and/or satisfaction.

NEW VENTURE. An enterprise that is in the process of being created by an entrepreneur.

NEW VENTURE TEAMS. Temporary task forces or teams made up of individuals who have been relieved of their normal duties in order to develop a new process, product, or program.

NEW VENTURE UNITS. Either separate divisions or specially incorporated companies created for the specific purpose of developing new products or business ideas and initiatives.

NEWLY INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES (NICS). Countries within the LDGs that are emerging as major exporters of manufactured goods, including such nations as Hong Kong, Taiwan, and South Korea.

NOISE. Any factor in the communication process that interferes with exchanging messages and achieving common meaning.

NOMINAL GROUP TECHNIQUE (NGT). A technique for enhancing group creativity that integrates both individual work and group interaction within certain ground rules.

NONCRISIS PROBLEM. A type of problem in managerial decision making involving an issue that requires resolution but does not simultaneously have the importance and immediacy characteristics of a crisis.

NONCYBERNETIC CONTROL SYSTEM. A control system that relies on human discretion as a basic part of its process.

NONPROGRAMMED DECISIONS. Managerial decisions for which predetermined decision rules are impractical because the situations are novel and/or illstructured.

NONRATIONAL ESCALATION. The tendency to increase commitment to a previously selected course of action beyond the level that would be expected if the manager followed an effective decision-making process; also called escalation phenomenon.

NONRATIONAL MODELS. Models of managerial decision making which suggest that information-gathering and -processing limitations make it difficult for managers to make optimal decisions.

NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION. Communication by means of elements and behaviors that are not coded into words.

NORMATIVE DECISION-MAKING MODELS. Models of decision-making that attempt to prescribe how managers should make decisions.

NORMATIVE LEADERSHIP MODEL. A situational leadership theory model (designed by Vroom and Yetton) that helps leaders assess important situation factors that affect the extent to which they should involve subordinates in particular decisions.

NORMING. A stage of group development in which group members begin to build group cohesion, as well as develop consensus about norms for performing a task and relating to one another.

NORMS. A major group process factor involving expected behaviors sanctioned by the group that regulate and foster uniformity in member behaviors.

NOT-FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATION. An organization whose purposes focus on issues other than making profits.

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