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JAPANESE MANAGEMENT. An approach that focuses on aspects of management in Japan that may be appropriate for adoption in the United States.
JOB ANALYSIS. A key activity in human resources planning that involves the systematic collection and recording of information concerning the purpose of a job, its major duties, the conditions under which it is performed, the contacts with others that performance of the job requires, and the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed for performing the job effectively.
JOB-CENTERED. A leadership approach in which leaders divide work into routine tasks, determine work methods, and closely supervise workers to ensure the methods are followed and productivity standards are met.
JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL. A model developed to guide job enrichment efforts that include consideration of core job characteristics, critical psychological states, and outcomes.
JOB DEPTH. An aspect of job design that addresses the degree to which individuals can plan and control the work involved in their jobs.
JOB DESCRIPTION. A statement of the duties, working conditions, and other significant requirements associated with a particular job.
JOB DESIGN. The specification of task activities associated with a particular job.
JOB ENLARGEMENT. A job design approach that involves the allocation of a wider variety of similar tasks to a job in order to make it more challenging.
JOB ENRICHMENT. A job design approach that up-grades the job-task mix in order to increase significantly the potential for growth, achievement, responsibility, and recognition.
JOB EVALUATION. A systematic process of establishing the relative worth of jobs within a single organization in order to help establish pay differentials among jobs; it is the foundation of most major compensation systems.
JOB POSTING. An internal recruiting practice whereby information about job vacancies is placed in conspicuous places in an organization, such as on bulletin boards or in organizational newsletters.
JOB ROTATION. A job design approach that involves periodically shifting workers through a set of jobs in a planned sequence.
JOB SCOPE. An alternative work schedule in which two or more people share a single full-time job.
JOB SIMPLIFICATION. A job design approach whereby jobs are configured so that jobholders have only a small number of narrow activities to perform.
JOB SPECIFICATION. A statement of the skills, abilities, education, and previous work experience that are required to perform a particular job.
JOINT VENTURE. An agreement involving two or more organizations that arrange to produce a product or service jointly.
JUDGMENTAL FORECASTING. A type of forecasting that relies mainly on individual judgments or committee agreements regarding future conditions.
JURY OF EXECUTIVE OPINION. A method of judgmental forecasting in which organization executives hold a meeting and estimate, as a group, a forecast for a particular item.
JUST-IN-TIME (JIT) INVENTORY CONTROL. An approach to inventory control that emphasizes having materials arrive just as they are needed in the production process.
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