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Z94.10 Management

In the 1989, Industrial Engineering Terminology Revised Edition, reference is made on page XVI to Management as:  Management refers to the systematic organization, allocation, and application of economic and human resources to bring about a controlled change:  the role of management in these proceedings is one of organization and consideration of human effort in exploiting resources for the improvement of the organization involved (Professor D. W. Karger taken from his School of Management (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) Long Range Planning Document).

While the Management subcommittee has reviewed much literature and a number of texts published over the past several years, as part of its normal education mission, the most complete (and recent) reference is the 1991 text; Management, by Kathryn M. Bartol, University of Maryland College Park; and David C. Martin, American University, McGraw Hill, Inc., New York, N.Y. (1991), 813 pages.

This text therefore represents the major source of the start of our first Management Terminology Section.


L. Ken Keys, Ph.D.
Professor and Chairman
Industrial and Manufacturing Systems
Engineering Department
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge


Paul Givens, Ph.D.
Professor and Chairman
Industrial and Management Systems
University of South Florida, Tampa

Anita Callahan, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Industrial and Management Systems
University of South Florida, Tampa


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ABILITY. The capacity to perform; along with effort, it is a key determinant of performance.

ACCEPTABLE QUALITY LEVEL (AQL). A predetermined standard against which random samples of produced materials are compared in acceptance sampling.

ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING. A statistical technique used in quality control that involves evaluating random samples from a group, or  “lot,” of produced materials to determine whether the lot meets acceptable quality levels.

ACCEPTANCE THEORY OF AUTHORITY. A theory connected with administrative management approach which argues that authority does not depend as much on “persons of authority” who give orders as on the willingness of those who receive the orders to comply.

ACCOMMODATION. A conflict-handing mode that involves solving conflicts by allowing the desires of the other party to prevail.

ACCOUNTABILITY. The requirement to provide satisfactory reasons for significant deviations from duties or expected results.

ACHIEVEMENT-ORIENTED. A leader behavior identified in path-goal theory that involves setting challenging goals, expecting subordinates to perform at their highest level, and conveying a high degree of confidence in subordinates.

ACTION PLAN. Plans that identify day-to-day activities in support of the goals of the organization.

ACQUIRED-NEEDS THEORY. A content theory of motivation (developed by David C. McClelland) which argues that our needs are acquired or learned on the basis of our life experience.

ACQUISITION. The purchase of all or part of one organization by another, and a means of implementing growth strategies.

ACTION RESEARCH. A method used in the diagnosis phase of organizational development that places heavy emphasis on data gathering and collaborative diagnosis before action is taken.

ACTIVE LISTENING. The process in which a listener actively participates in attempting to grasp the facts and the feelings being expressed by the speaker.

ACTIVITY. A work component to be accomplished, represented by an arrow on a PERT network diagram or bar on a GANTT Chart.

AD HOC COMMITTEE. A committee created for a short term purpose.

ADAPTIVE MODE. An approach to strategy formulation that emphasizes taking small incremental steps, reacting to problems rather than seeking opportunities, and attempting to satisfy a number of organizational power groups.

ADHOCRACY. The structural configuration in Mintzberg’s typology characterized by various forms of matrix departmentalization, expertise dispersed throughout, low formalization, and emphasis on mutual adjustment.

ADJOURNING. A stage of group development in which group members prepare for disengagement as the group nears successful completion of its goals.

ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT. An approach within classical management theory that focuses on principles that can be used by managers to coordinate the internal activities of organizations.

ADMINISTRATIVE PROTECTIONS. A type of trade barrier in the form of various rules and regulations that make it more difficult for foreign firms to conduct business in a particular country.

ADVERSE IMPACT. The effect produced when a job selection rate for a protected group is less than 80 percent of the rate for the majority group.

ADVERTISING. An approach to influencing the environment involving the use of communications media to gain favorable publicity for particular products and services.

AFFIRMATIVE ACTION. Any special activity undertaken by employers to increase equal employment opportunities for groups protected by federal equal employment opportunity laws and related regulations.

AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PLAN. A written, systematic plan that specifies goals and timetables for hiring, training, promoting, and retraining groups protected by federal equal employment laws and related regulations.

AGGREGATE PRODUCTION PLANNING. A primary operating system used in operations management that is concerned with planning how to match supply with product or service demand over a time horizon of about 1 year.

ALTERNATIVE WORK SCHEDULES. Schedules based on adjustments in the normal work schedule rather than in the job content or activities.

AMORAL MANAGEMENT. An approach to managerial ethics that is neither immoral nor moral but, rather, ignores or is oblivious to ethical considerations.

ANCHORING AND ADJUSTMENT. A decision-making bias that involves the tendency to be influenced by an initial figure, even the information is largely irrelevant.

ANTIFREELOADER ARGUMENT. An argument that indicates that since businesses benefit from a better society, they should bear part of the costs by actively working to bring about solutions to social problems.

APPLICATION BLANK. A form used widely as a selection method that contains a series of inquires about such issues as an applicant’s educational background, previous job experience, physical health, and other information that may be useful in assessing an individual’s ability to perform a job.

APPLICATION SOFTWARE PACKAGES. Special purpose computer programs available for sale or lease from commercial sources.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. A field of information technology aimed at developing computers that have humanlike capabilities, such as seeing, hearing, and thinking (i.e. reasoning and learning from experience).

ASSESSMENT CENTER. A controlled environment used to predict the probable managerial success of individuals mainly on the basis of evaluations of their behaviors in a variety of simulated situations, thereby facilitating selection.

ASSET MANAGEMENT RATIOS. Financial ratios that measure how effectively an organization uses its resources.

AUTHORITY. The right to make decisions, carry out actions, and direct others in matters related to the duties and goals of a position.

AUTOCRATIC. The behavioral style of leaders who makes unilateral decisions, dictates work methods, limits worker knowledge about goals, the next step to be performed, and sometimes gives feedback that is punitive.

AUTONOMOUS WORK GROUP. Another name for a self-managing team.

AUTONOMY. A core job characteristic involving the amount of discretion allowed in determining schedules and work methods for achieving the required output.

AVAILABILITY. A decision-making bias that involves the tendency to judge the likelihood of an occurrence on the basis of the extent to which other like instances or occurrences can easily be recalled.

AVOIDANCE. A conflict-handing mode that involves ignoring or suppressing a conflict in the hope that it will either go away or not become too disruptive.

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