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Z94.9 Human Factors (Ergonomics) Engineering

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HAWTHORNE EFFECT. An experimental confound resulting from the act of observation changing the essential characteristics of the phenomenon observed.

HEAD SCANNING. Scanning of the visual field through head movement combined with eye movement. Head scanning is normally a slow process which, when performed too frequently or rapidly, may induce giddiness and lead to errors in visual judgment. Good workplace design minimizes the need for head scanning.

HEAD UP DISPLAY (HUD). Mode of display in which information is presented on a transparent surface (e.g., a windshield) along the human's natural line of sight.

HEART RATE. A physiological measure that is used as an estimate of job stress, work load, or environmental stress. Usually expressed in beats per minute.

HEAT STRESS. Additional physiological load induced by working in a hot environment. The effects of heat stress include increased heart rate and increased body temperature, and may also include increased sweat rate and feelings of fatigue. Severe heat stress can result in heat exhaustion.

HEAT STRESS INDEX. Any of several methods that attempt to combine some or all of the interactive effects of temperature, humidity, air velocity, work load, and clothing into a single measure predictive of physiological effect.

HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD). Mode of display in which information is presented on a helmet visor  along the human's natural line of sight.

HELP SYSTEM. On-line user assistance available within many application programs.

HEURISTIC. A useful but not completely reliable rule or strategy, in either human or automated reasoning.

HIERARCHICAL MENU SYSTEM. An interface consisting of menus interconnected in a tree-like structure.

HIGHLIGHT. Method of display in which a rare feature is used to capture a user's attention.

HUE. The attribute of color determined primarily by the wavelength of light entering the eye. Spectral hues range from red through orange, yellow, green, and blue to violet.

HUMAN ENGINEERING. One of several terms used to define approximately the same discipline. Other terms are human factors, human factors engineering, and ergonomics. Ergonomics is used predominantly outside the U.S.A.; the others predominantly within. The aim of the discipline is the evaluation and design of facilities, environments, jobs, training methods and equipment to match the capabilities of users and workers. Exact definition of these terms or the scope of work is improbable. (See ERGONOMICS.)

HUMAN ERROR. Human behavior with undesirable consequences.

HUMAN FACTORS. One of several terms used to define approximately the same discipline. Other terms are human engineering, human factors engineering, and ergonomics. Ergonomics is used predominantly outside the U.S.A.; the others predominantly within. The aim of the discipline is the evaluation and design of facilities, environments, jobs, training methods and equipment to match the capabilities of users and workers. Exact definition of these terms or the scope of work is improbable. (See ERGONOMICS.)

HUMAN OPERATOR. A person who participates in some aspect of operation or support of a system and its associated equipment and facilities. (Generally refers to one who operates equipment as opposed to one who maintains the equipment.)

HUMAN TRANSFER FUNCTION. The mathematical description of a human operator’s outputs (e.g. control movement) in a tracking task as a function of inputs (display indications), described in terms of a linear differential equation.

HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION (HCI). The communication between a computer and a human user, or the scientific study of this phenomenon.

HUMAN-MACHINE SYSTEM. A functioning system comprised of a machine and at least one individual.

HYPERTEXT. Format of database organization in which data elements are linked together in a tangled hierarchy, allowing the user to easily navigate between related elements.

HYPOXIA. An insufficiency of the oxygen supply to living tissues relative to their existing requirement, such as may occur with reduced atmospheric pressure at high altitudes. The central nervous system and heart are most vulnerable: marked cardiovascular and behavioral symptoms may develop over a period of minutes, and include disorientation, dizziness, dimness of vision, and breathlessness, progressing to unconsciousness and collapse (“blackout”).

 

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