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SAFETY. The prevention and reduction of the causes of accidents or job related illness.
SAFETY EDUCATION. The process of presenting information and reminders to employees to enable them to gain understanding and desired attitudes concerning a respectful appreciation for the dangers, hazards, or unsafe practices in the work environment with the means to avoid or prevent them.
SAFETY ENGINEERING. That phase of engineering which deals with the prevention of industrial accidents and is primarily concerned with redesigning machinery, to eliminate accident producing hazards, to invent safety devices, and to design production and maintenance conditions for maximum safety conditions.
SALARY. The fixed monetary compensation paid to an employee either weekly, monthly, or yearly (rather than by the hour) for services rendered; usually based on a certain minimum of hours per period. Generally applies to non-production, non- routine or supervisory jobs exempt from the provisions of the Fair Labor Standard Act although an employee can be paid a salary and still be covered by said act.
SALARY ADMINISTRATION. The methods, procedures, and policies used to control and guide various salary programs and plans.
SALARY AND COMMISSION. (See COMMISSION EARNINGS.)
SALARY BUDGET. An amount or pool of money set aside for paying salaries during some period. Salary budgets must be taken into account when planning adjustments to a wage structure and when planning individual employee adjustment.
SALARY COMPRESSION. Occurs when new employees are hired in at pay rates (salary) close to, equal to, or even greater than the pay rates of present employees in the same or similar positions. Most prevalent during periods of high inflation.
SALARY CURVE. A curve, often linear, on a graph describing the relationship of jobs, either in points or grades, to the compensation for each of the jobs, often with job values in points or grades along the horizontal axis and dollar compensation along the vertical.
SALARY DIFFERENTIAL. The difference between the rate of compensation from one position to another anywhere on the salary curve.
SALARY GUIDE. A listing of compensation amounts for a given occupation group in order of progression based upon an application criterion for advancement, such as time in position or level of job qualification.
SALARY LEVEL CHANGE. The increase in average salary from one period to the next stated in terms of a percent.
SALARY PLUS BONUS. A type of salary compensation plan in which an employee is paid a base salary not tied to performance and a bonus over and above the base salary based upon a formula measuring performance. The bonus is usually based upon some percent of base salary.
SALARY PLUS COMMISSION. A type of salary compensation plan in which an employee is paid a base salary not tied to performance and a set dollar amount or a percent dollar amount of the value of all units sold or produced above a given level.
SALARY PROFILE. A tabulation showing numbers of persons at various compensation levels in a given job, occupation, organization, geographical location, or other grouping.
SALARY RANGES. High and low designations of compensation for a given job or position. May incorporate designation of pay progression amounts from low to high applicable on basis of set formula or policy.
SALARY RATE. For workers hired on a weekly, monthly, or annual basis, the rate of pay is normally ex pressed in terms of dollars per week, month, or year. Workers employed on a monthly, or annual salary basis may actually be paid monthly, semi- monthly, or more frequently. Usually, the length of the work week is specified and a policy is established for compensation in the event that longer or shorter hours than a full week are worked.
SALARY SCATTERGRAM. An arrangement in graphical or matrix form of numbers of employees at each designated compensation amount or grade.
SALARY STRUCTURE (WAGE STRUCTURE). The structure of pay grades and ranges established for jobs within an organization. The salary structure may be expressed in terms of pay grades, job evaluation points, or policy lines.
SALES COMPENSATION. Any form of compensation paid to sales representatives. Sales compensation formulas usually attempt to establish direct incentives for sales outcomes such as the establishment of commissions as a percent of sales.
SAVINGS PLAN. (See THRIFT PLAN.)
SCAB. (See STRIKEBREAKER.)
SCALE. (See UNION RATE.)
SCANLON PLAN. A productivity gainsharing plan based on the ratio of selected labor costs to sales revenues adjusted for returns and allowances and changes in inventory levels. The Scanlon Plan involves much employee participation, predating quality circles with most of the same techniques. In effect, employees share in organization profits as a result of contributing and cooperating to attain higher productivity.
SCATTERGRAM. A mathematical technique designed to display a “picture” of a relationship between two variables. A scattergram is a plotting of coordinates simultaneously representing x and y scores for a number of observations. Usually used in establishing wage rates for job evaluation plans. The horizontal axis (x) shows job evaluation points or grades and the vertical axis (y) shows dollar amounts.
SEASONAL EMPLOYMENT. Employment during part of the year only, arising out of the seasonal character of an industry. Agricultural, cannery, construction, and lumber workers are examples of workers subject to seasonal employment. Seasonal unemployment, unemployment caused by seasonal or climatic conditions or by customs which make full time employment impossible in some industries.
SECONDARY BOYCOTT. (See BOYCOTT.)
SECTION 14 (B), LABOR MANAGEMENT RELATIONS ACT, 1947. This section of the Taft-Hartley Act provides the opening through which states may enact “right-to- work” laws. It reads as follows: “Nothing in this act shall be construed as authorizing the execution or application of agreements requiring member ship in a labor organization as a condition of employment in any State or Territory in which such execution or application is prohibited by State or Territorial law.” (See RIGHT-TO-WORK LAW.)
SELECTION. The choice of the best qualified personnel for employment from the recruited.
SEMI-SKILLED LABOR. Employees whose work requires some manipulative ability but is limited to a fairly definite work routine. They are expected to exercise only limited independent judgment, and training is usually short with no formal apprenticeship.
SENIORITY. Term used to designate an employee’s status relative to other employees, as in determining order of promotion, layoff, vacations, etc. Straight seniority-seniority acquired solely through length of service. Qualified seniority-other factors such as ability considered with length of service. Departmental or unit seniority-seniority applicable in a particular section of a plant rather than in the entire establishment. Plantwide or companywide seniority-seniority applicable throughout the plant or company. Seniority list-individual workers ranked in order of seniority. (See SUPER SENIORITY.)
SENIORITY RIGHTS. Employment rights, privileges, and status gained by employees in relation to others on the basis of length of service.
SENSITIVITY TRAINING. A group process that is designed to create an opportunity for individuals to expose their behavior and to give as well as receive feedback. Members frankly say how they react to certain behaviors so that each gains an awareness of the way his or her behavior affects others.
SEPARATION PAY. (See SEVERANCE PAY.)
SEPARATIONS. Termination of temporary or permanent employment initiated by the employee or employer.
SERVICE FEE. Fee required by unions to be paid by non members applying for employment in union hiring halls, as a condition of referral to employment.
SERVICE, LENGTH OF. Total amount of time an individual has worked for an employer is measured by the employer’s standards, union contracts, or customs and traditions and used as a basis for computing seniority.
SEVERANCE PAY. Monetary allowance paid by employer to displaced employees generally upon permanent termination of employment with no chance of recall, but often upon indefinite layoff with recall rights intact. Plans usually graduate payments by length of service. Also known as dismissed pay or allowance, termination pay, separation pay, layoff allowance. In some cases, severance pay formulas may be employed to create incentives for a person to leave prior to retirement.
SEVERITY RATE OF ACCIDENTS. The total of time charges or occupational injuries per million man-hours of exposure. Time charges include actual calendar days of disability resulting from temporary total injuries and scheduled changes for deaths and permanent disabilities.
SEXUAL HARASSMENT. Physical violation or verbal abuse of a sexual nature of employees.
SHAPEUP. System of hiring work gangs from a group of workers assembled to seek employment. Used in longshore work in some ports, and in the hiring of migratory farm workers.
SHARE-THE-WORK. (See WORK SHARING.)
SHARING PLAN. Payment to employees of part of productivity gains over and above an established goal or standard. An incentive plan. (See PRODUCTIVITY GAINSHARING, RUCKER PLAN, AND
SHESTIL. Term used to describe an additional initiation fee required by some craft unions to permit part-time employees to accept full-time employment. This practice has been outlawed by the Taft-Hartley Act.
SHIFT. A term applied to a work period where two or more groups of workers are employed at different hours during the operating time of an establishment; e.g., an establishment may operate two shifts of eight hours each or 16 hours a day. In some industries, the term “trick”, “turn”, or “tour” is used instead of shift. (See FIXED SHIFT, ROTATING SHIFT, SPLIT SHIFT, SWING SHIFT.)
SHIFT DIFFERENTIAL. Added compensation to workers who are employed on a work schedule other than the regular daytime schedule. Shift differentials may be paid in a number of ways: (1) a fixed amount per hour above the rate paid on the regular day shift; (2) a percentage over earnings at the regular day shift rates; (3) shorter hours with full daily pay, or; (4) both shorter hours and additional monetary compensation above full daily pay.
SHIFT PREMIUM. (See SHIFT DIFFERENTIAL.)
SHOP COMMITTEE. Group of workers selected by fellow employees, usually union members, to represent them in their dealings with management. Special types are: grievance committee, negotiating committee.
SHOP RULES. (See WORK RULES).
SHOP STEWARD. A local union’s representative in a plant or department selected by union members (or sometimes appointed by the union) to carry out union duties, adjust grievances, collect dues and solicit new members. Usually a fellow employee.
SHORT-TERM DISABILITY. A part of worker compensation insurance.
SHORT-TERM INCOME PROTECTION (UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE). State administered programs which provide financial protection for workers during periods of joblessness. These plans are wholly financed by employers except in Alabama, Alaska, and New Jersey where there are provisions for relatively small employee contributions.
SHORT WORKWEEK BENEFIT. As part of a supplemental unemployment benefit plan, payment to worker for the difference between a specified level of weekly hours and the hours actually worked or paid for.
SHUT-DOWN. The stoppage of activity in an establishment pending settlement of a labor dispute, installation of new equipment, repairs, lack of material, financial troubles, etc.
SICK LEAVE. Period of time during which a worker may be absent without loss of job or seniority if unable to work because of illness or accident. A paid sick leave provides for full or partial pay for such absence, usually up to a stipulated maximum. Sick leave plans differ from accident and sickness benefits principally in that the former cover shorter periods of absence and are uninsured. (See ACCIDENT AND SICKNESS BENEFITS.)
SIGNIFICANT RISKS. An enforcement tool superseding the no-risk standard as a result of a court decision in Industrial Union Department, AFL-CIO v. American Petroleum Institute, 1980. This standard implied that OSHA cannot demand compliance with the no-risk standard if the organization in question can show its existing exposure level to harmful agents is below a threshold assessment as determined by OSHA.
SINGLE COMPANY UNION. An independent or unaffiliated union of employees of one company, usually with no formal ties to any other labor organization.
SINGLE RATE. A rate which is the same for all workers on the same job or in the same job classification, and under which the individual worker on a job receives the same rate during the entire time that he/she is holding the job. The single rate usually is paid to experienced workers in jobs requiring varying degrees of skill. Learners or apprentices may be paid according to rate schedules which start below the single rate and permit the workers to achieve the full job rate over a period of time. In the less skilled jobs, the rates for beginners and experienced workers may be identical because the period of time necessary to become familiar with all phases of the work is relatively short.
SITDOWN STRIKE. (See STRIKE.)
SKILL. A factor of comparison in a job evaluation plan. Relates to manual and mental dexterity. Developed through practice, training and experience.
SKILL DIFFERENTIAL. Differences in wage rates paid to workers engaged in occupations requiring varying levels of skill in work performance. May also refer to differentials in rates of workers in the same occupation, higher rates being paid to those who usually perform the more complex tasks. (See PREMIUM RATE OF PAY.)
SKILLED LABOR. Employees who have mastered one of the traditional crafts, usually through an apprentice ship, and who possess a thorough comprehensive knowledge of the job, have the ability to exercise considerable independent judgement, and the capability of assuming responsibility.
SKILLED TRADES. A subunit in an industrial union’s local made up of craft employees. They frequently have the right to a separate ratification vote on new contracts and serve on labor-management committees dealing with contracting-out.
SKILLS INVENTORY. A planning tool that indicates all people currently employed by the organization and classifies them according to their skills, job assignments, age, sex, and other factors relevant to human resource planning. The device is employed primarily as a way of classifying internal labor supplies for human resource planning. (See MANNING TABLE).
SLIDING SCALE WAGE PLAN. A wage which links wages directly to profits, prices, sales, or output.
SLOTTING. The act of folding a job into a category, classification, or any other class defined by a job evaluation system. Slotting usually involves the comparison of a job to some standard or bench mark job.
SLOWDOWN. A deliberate reduction of output without an actual strike in order to force concessions from an employer. (See STRIKE.)
SOCIAL SECURITY ACT, 1935. Federal law establishing a national social insurance program. The law provides for: old-age, survivors’ and disability benefits (an all-federal program); public assistance to the aged, the blind, and to needy families; and unemployment insurance (both federal- state programs). The coverage and other provisions have been modified several times since enactment.
SOCIAL SECURITY ADJUSTMENT OPTION. Pension plan provision under which a worker eligible for an early retirement benefit may elect to get a larger plan benefit than is actually due up to the time his social security benefit is payable, and a smaller benefit thereafter, so that a level income is maintained throughout retirement. (LEVEL INCOME OPTION.)
SOCIAL SECURITY OFFSET. Under some pension plans, the amount of social security benefits to which a retiring worker is entitled that is to be deducted from the private plan benefit, as computed, to obtain the actual benefit payable. The offset or deduction may be all or part of the social security benefit.
SOCIOPSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS. Conditions in the workplace that lead to perceived stress and low quality of work life.
SOCIOPSYCHOLOGICAL WORK ENVIRONMENT. The non physical parts of the work environment including such things as relationships with supervisors, company policies, structure of the organization, organizational changes, uncertainty, conflicts, and relationship with co-workers.
SPAN OF CONTROL. A concept referring to the range of supervision or the number of subordinates which an executive can direct and control with maximum efficiency.
SPECIAL PERMIT RATE. A rate paid to a union worker who comes from another city and is employed under a special permit because of local labor shortages. The rate received is the same as that paid to a permanent worker in the area. In the unionized brewery industry, this term refers to the rates paid to special workers who are temporarily employed during the peak summer period. These rates are usually lower than those received by “regular” union workers.
SPEED RATING. (See LEVELING, PERFORMANCE RATING.)
SPEEDUP. Workers’ term for conditions which force them to increase effort or production within a given time without a compensating increase in earnings. (See STRETCHOUT.)
SPELL. A work period.
SPELLHAND. An extra person or persons added to a group and becoming a permanent part of the group so as to provide relief to all members of the group without waiting for a specific person to supply such relief time.
SPELLOUT. (See RELIEF TIME.)
SPENDABLE EARNINGS. In general, the monthly earnings of workers less various amounts deducted for taxes and other purposes from payrolls; hence, “spend able earnings” may be identified broadly with “take-home” earnings or disposable income. Term also used in the sense of the earnings available for private spending or saving, but this usage would include certain types of deductions (e.g., union dues) as spendable earnings. “Net spendable average weekly earnings” is a series developed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in which Federal Social Security and Income Taxes are deducted from gross average weekly earnings for workers with a specified number of dependents. (See TAKE-HOME PAY.)
SPLIT SHIFT. The daily working time that is not continuous, but split into two or more working periods. “Split shifts” are usually found in industries such as local transportation, which is affected by peak or rush periods at various times of the day. (See FIXED SHIFT, ROTATING SHIFT, SHIFT, SWING SHIFT.)
SPREAD-THE-WORK. (See WORK SHARING.)
STANDARD. An established norm against which various measurements are compared. An established norm of productivity defined in terms of units of output per set time or in standard time. The time allowed to perform a specific job including quantity of work to be produced.
STANDARD AGREEMENT. Collective bargaining agreement prepared by a national or international union for use by, or guidance of, its local unions, designed to produce standardization of practices within the union’s bargaining relationships. (See FORM AGREEMENT.)
STANDARD ALLOWANCE. An established time provided for compensation for anticipated circumstances. Frequently expressed as a percentage of the base normal time to cover personal, fatigue, and delays (P,F, and D). (See ALLOWANCE.)
STANDARD ALLOWED TIME. A unit time value for the accomplishment of a task inclusive of adjustments or allowances for various circumstances.
STANDARD DATA. A structured collection of normal time values for elements of tasks or jobs.
STANDARD HOUR. The time earned for producing an amount of work equal to the production quota for one hour.
STANDARD HOUR PLAN. A method or formula of compensation based on earned standard hours credited on the basis of output during a given time period.
STANDARD HOURS PRODUCED. The total output of a worker during a given time period expressed in terms of standard allowed time and calculated as the sum of earned time for all work produced during the period.
STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA (SMSA). Geographic division used by the Bureau of the Census and the Social and Economic Statistics Administration of the Department of Commerce. There are a set number of SMSA’s in the U.S. and Puerto Rico, the exact number changing over time. Each one consists of one or more entire counties that meet standards pertaining to population and metropolitan character. Federal studies of the population characteristics of SMSA’s can be helpful in analyzing information about an organization’s labor market.
STANDARD PERFORMANCE. Level of performance required to accomplish a standardized task or job in the standard time established.
STANDARD RATE. A basic rate of pay established for an occupation in a plant, industry, or community through collective bargaining, company regulation, or by law. May also refer to established rates for services rendered in a community in connection with maintenance and repair of automobiles, appliances, buildings, etc.
STANDARD TIME. A unit time value for the accomplishment of a work task or job.
STANDARD TIME DATA. A structured collection of time values for elements of work performed under standard conditions at normal pace. (See STANDARD DATA.)
STARTING RATE. Rate of pay during probationary period, during period of training, or for a period of time following a job transfer. Entrance rate.
STATUS PAY. A form of a non-financial reward, such as office furnishings or office size, given to an employee by virtue of position within the organization.
STEP BONUS. A plan of compensation under which payments are provided in increasing progression for increased productivity or accomplishment of work-related goals.
STEP RATES. Fixed levels between the minimum rates for an occupation in wage progression system. (See AUTOMATIC PROGRESSION) (WAGE PROGRESSION.)
STOCK BONUS. Stock in a company awarded to an employee by the company, usually for a particular reason such as personal performance or corporate performance, and paid for by the company.
STOCK OPTION. The privilege granted to certain employees to purchase shares of the company’s stock as of a given date and price at some time in the future when, it is assumed, the stock will be selling on the market at a higher price.
STOCK OPTION DISCOUNT. The difference between the quoted market price for a given stock and the price quoted to an employee at the time a stock option is granted.
STOCK OPTION EXERCISE. The actual purchase of shares of stock at the option price after a predetermined date.
STOCK OPTION FORFEIT. The election by an employee not to exercise his/her rights to purchase stock under the option plan. Usually occurs when the market price falls below the option price.
STOCK OPTION HOLDING PERIOD. The time a participant in a stock option plan must hold purchased stock in order to qualify for the special tax treatments (capital gains) available. Usually refers to qualified stock option plans. Under laws governing qualified plans, participants had to hold stock for three years to take advantage of capital gains and exercise options within five years.
STOCK OPTION (NON-QUALIFIED). A stock option granted to employees that has fewer restrictions than a qualified plan. The option may be priced below market value, the time duration may be longer than five years, and more recently lower-priced options may be exercised before higher-priced options still outstanding. A nonqualified option is not eligible for capital gains treatment and, when exercised, becomes taxable income to the employee.
STOCK OPTION PLANS. Plans allowing employees and/or officers the privilege of purchasing company stock at a certain price on certain dates. The formal policies and procedures that outline how stock options will be administered. The usual plan would define participation, amounts of stock, prices, time limits, and methods for exercising rights.
STOCK OPTION TERM. The period of time in which a participant has the right to purchase stock. The maximum for qualified plans is five years.
STOCK PURCHASE PLAN. (1) (General) A plan enabling employees to purchase shares of stock in a company, with or without employer contribution, generally under more favorable terms than those available on the open market. The formal policies and procedures that outline how employees may purchase stock and the method of administering the plan. (2) (Non-qualified Stock Purchase Plan) A plan that is, in effect, a management stock purchase plan. It allows senior management or other key personnel to purchase stock in the business. There are, however, certain restrictions: a) the stockholder must be employed for a certain period of time, b) the business has the right to buy back the stock, c) stockholders cannot sell the stock for a defined period of time. (3) (Qualified) A program under which employees buy shares of the company’s stock, with the company contributing a specific amount for each unit of employee contribution. Also stock may be offered at a fixed price (usually below market) and paid for in full by the employees. Benefits are distributed in stock of the employing company.
STOCK WARRANT. An option to purchase common stock at a fixed price intended to be favorable in the future. Considered a common stock equivalent. May be issued by a company to an employee or purchased by anyone in an open market.
STRAIGHT COMMISSION. Compensation, usually for sales or service personnel, based on a predetermined percentage of the value of sales or services rendered.
STRAIGHT SALARY. Compensation based on a fixed amount for a given period of time (per hour, per day, per week, per month, or per year).
STRAIGHT TIME. Time worked at regular rate, as distinguished from overtime, without regard to output. (See EARNINGS, OVERTIME.)
STRAIGHT TIME RATE. Rate of pay applicable to regular time work.
STRETCHOUT. Term used by workers when they are required to tend more machines or assume additional duties within a given time without a corresponding increase in earnings. (See SPEEDUP.)
STRIKE (WILDCAT, OUTLAW, QUICKIE, SLOWDOWN, SYMPATHY, SIT-DOWN, GENERAL WALKOUT). Temporary stoppage of work by a group of employees (not necessarily members of a union) to express a grievance, enforce a demand for changes in the conditions of employment, obtain recognition, or resolve a dispute with management. 1) Quickie Strike. A spontaneous or unannounced strike or strike of very short duration. (Sometimes referred to as a walkout). 2) Sympathy Strike. Strike of workers not directly involved in a dispute, but who wish to demonstrate worker solidarity or bring additional pressure upon the company involved. 3) Sitdown Strike. Strike during which workers stay inside the plant or work-place, but refuse to work or allow others to do so. 4) General Strike. Strike involving all organized workers in a community or county. (Rare in the United States.)
STRIKE BENEFITS. Union payments made to members who are on strike.
STRIKEBREAKER. Worker or person on hire who accepts employment or continues to work in a plant where an authorized strike is in process, filling the job of a striker and knowingly assisting in defeating the strike. (See ANTI-STRIKEBREAKER LAW, FINK.) (SCAB)
STRIKE DEADLINE. Time set by the union for beginning a strike if a satisfactory settlement is not reached. Typically, this is at midnight of the last day of the contract term or the start of the next day’s first shift.
STRIKE FUND. Money allocated by a union or set aside in a separate account to pay strike benefits and to defray other expenses of strikes.
STRIKE INSURANCE. Payment by companies in an association to a fund, or for the purchase of insurance, to reimburse a struck member company for lost business.
STRIKE NOTICE. Formal notice of an intention to strike, presented by the union to the employer, or to the appropriate federal government agency, e.g., the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service.
STRIKE VOTE. Vote conducted among members of a union to determine whether or not a strike should be called. Typically a “given” action in contract negotiations in order to show solidarity.
STRUCK WORK OR GOODS. Goods produced or services performed by a firm while a strike of its employees is in process. (See HOT-CARGO CLAUSE.)
STYLE DEVELOPMENT RATE. Similar to temporary, experimental, or trial rate. The term is used in the hosiery manufacturing industry and relates to work on new styles for which no piece rates have yet been set. Generally, hourly rates are paid on such work. Usually, these hourly rates average close to the workers’ previous piece-rate earnings. The style development rates are in effect for a specified time and are then replaced by new piece rates.
SUB. Income security plan. (See SUPPLEMENTAL UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFIT PLAN).
SUBCONTRACTING (CONTRACTING-OUT, FARMING OUT). Practice of having certain steps in a manufacturing process, plant maintenance, or other work functions performed by outside contractors, using their own work forces. Limitations on what work can be subcontracted is often covered in union contracts.
SUBMINIMAL RATE. A rate below the minimum established for an occupation, establishment, industry, or area by union agreement, law, or policy. Such rates may be paid to learners, probationary, substandard or special permit workers.
SUBSISTENCE ALLOWANCE. A payment to a worker for expenses covering meals, lodging, and transportation while in a traveling status for his employer. Such allowances may be based on a fixed amount for meals and lodging plus other expenditures or on the actual expenses incurred for all items. There also are cases where institutional workers (e.g., nurses) receive a subsistence allowance for living outside the institution, since free room and board are incorporated into the wage structure.
SUBSTANDARD RATE. A rate of pay below the prevailing or standard level for a worker whose efficiency is impaired because of physical or mental handicaps. The term is also used to refer to rates below federal or state minimum wage levels or below prevailing levels for an occupation in an industry or area. (See HANDICAPPED WORKER RATE.)
SUGGESTION SYSTEM. Plan whereby employees’ ideas that may increase efficiency or quality, improve operations and/or safety, are channeled to the attention of management; usually combined with a system of rewards for acceptable ideas.
SUNLIGHTING. Secondary employment during daytime hours (See MOONLIGHTING).
SUPERANNUATED RATE. A rate of pay below the prevailing level for a worker above a certain age. Such rates are frequently allowed in union agreements. At times, the agreement requires the employment of a certain ratio of older workers at superannuated rates. Superannuated workers with long service are sometimes retained in an employed status because of their economic need; also their services are sometimes sought during periods of labor shortages.
SUPERANNUATED WORKERS. Term sometimes applied to employees who are unable to perform their jobs, or any job, at the normal level because of advanced age and its attendant infirmities.
SUPERCRAFT. (See MASTERCRAFT.)
SUPER SENIORITY. A position on the seniority list ahead of what the employee would acquire solely on the basis of length of service or other general seniority factors. Usually such favored treatment is reserved to union stewards or other workers entitled to special consideration in connection with layoff and recall to work.
SUPERVISION. (1) The function of directing the work of others to insure performance in accordance with plans and instructions. (2) A collective term for those engaged in this function.
SUPERVISOR. An individual within the management group who is responsible for the work assignments and work results of operative employees.
SUPERVISORY INCENTIVE. An incentive plan designed to financially reward supervisors over and beyond their base pay for meeting predetermined objectives for productivity and costs of the operations under their supervision.
SUPPLEMENTAL COMPENSATION. Money paid an employee over and above the agreed-upon base rate usually for exceeding predetermined targets or achieving or exceeding productivity standards. Can be either commission or bonus.
SUPPLEMENTAL UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFIT PLAN. An agreement negotiated between Ford Motor Company and the United Automobile Workers in 1955 and later extended to other companies. Such plans provide regular weekly payments to laid-off workers receiving state unemployment insurance, through funds financed by the employer. Additional pay given to laid-off employees over and above the state supplied unemployment insurance payments.
SUPPLEMENTARY BENEFITS. (See FRINGE BENEFITS.)
SUPPLEMENTS TO WAGES AND SALARIES. As defined by the U.S. Department of Commerce for national income purposes: “Supplements to wages and salaries is the monetary compensation of employees not commonly regarded as wages and salaries. It consists of employer contributions to private pension and welfare funds, compensation for injuries, director’s fees, pay of the military reserve, and a few other minor items of labor income.” Term sometimes used more broadly to refer to all supplements to basic wage or salary rates.
SURGICAL BENEFITS. Plans which provide workers, and in many cases, their dependents, with specified surgical care or a cash allowance toward the cost of such care, usually in accordance with a schedule of surgeon’s fees. Often referred to as Blue Shield. Generally part of a health and insurance program. (See HEALTH AND INSURANCE PLAN.)
SURVIVOR PROTECTION. Compensation paid to survivors of an employee. Most commonly provided by group life insurance plans.
SURVIVORS’ BENEFITS (TRANSITION BENEFITS, BRIDGE BENEFITS, WIDOW’S ALLOWANCE). Payments to dependents of employees who die prior to retirement, financed in whole or in part by the employer. May be in the form of payments for a fixed period (e.g., 24 months) supplementing regular life insurance benefits, a benefit for life out of a pension program, a lump-sum payment, etc.
SURVIVOR’S OPTION. (See JOINT AND SURVIVOR OPTION.)
SUSPENSION. Form of disciplinary action of a temporary nature, as in removing a worker from his/her job for a stipulated time with the consequent loss of pay as punishment, or in removing a union official from office until his affairs are checked or put into order.
SWEATSHOP. Term of contempt applied to an establishment employing workers for long hours at low wages under unfavorable working conditions.
SWEETHEART AGREEMENT (CONTRACT). A derogatory term for a union contract exceptionally favorable to a particular employer, in comparison with other contracts, implying less favorable conditions of employment than could be obtained under a legitimate collective bargaining relationship.
SWING SHIFT. An extra shift of workers required in establishments where continuous or seven-day operations are scheduled, to provide the other crews with days off. The “swing crew” usually rotates among all of the other shifts. Also, refers to the practice of one of three rotating shifts staying on the job through two shift periods, thus “swinging” the shifts into their new assignments. (See FIXED SHIFT, ROTATING SHIFT, SPLIT SHIFT.)
SYMPATHY STRIKE. (See STRIKE.)
SYNTHETIC TIME STANDARD. A time standard developed from data compiled from prior study or research rather than from a study of the actual job to which the standard is to be applied.
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