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ICON. (ANSI) A symbol, displayed on a screen, that enables a user to select an action, the object of the action, or both.
IDLE TIME. (ANSI/ISO) That part of operable time during which a functional unit is not operated.
IF-AND-ONLY-IF OPERATION. (See EQUIVALENCE OPERATION.)
IF-THEN OPERATION. (ANSI/ISO) Syn: Implication.
ILLEGAL CHARACTER. (ANSI) A character or combination of bits that is not valid according to some criteria, e.g., with respect to a specified alphabet, a character that is not a member.
IMPACT PRINTER. (ANSI/ISO) A printer in which printing is the result of mechanical impacts.
INDEX. (1) (ANSI/ISO) A reference of integer value, or an expression that yields an integer value, that identifies the position of a data item with respect to some other data item. (2) (ANSI) A table or list of the contents of a storage medium, file, document, or database, together with keys or references for locating the contents. (3) (ANSI) A symbol or a numeral array of similar quantities. (4) (ANSI) In micrographics, a guide for locating information on a roll of microfilm using targets, flash cards, lines, bars, or other optical codes. (5) (ANSI) To prepare a list as in (2). (6) (ANSI) To move a machine part to a predetermined position, or by a predetermined amount, on a quantized scale.
INFORMATION. (1) (ANSI/ISO) The meaning that is currently assigned to data by means of the conventions applied to that data. (2) (ANSI) In a conceptual schema language, any kind of knowledge about things, facts, or concepts of a universe of discourse that is exchangeable among users.
INITIALIZE. (1) (ANSI) To set counters, switches, addresses, or contents of storage to zero or other starting values at the beginning of, or at prescribed points in, the operation of a computer routine.
INITIAL PROGRAM LOADER (IPL). (ANSI/ISO) A bootstrap loader used in a computer to load that part of an operating system needed to load the remainder of the operating system.
INK JET PRINTER (ANSI/ISO). A non-impact printer in which the characters are formed by projecting a jet of ink onto paper.
INPUT. (1) (ANSI/ISO) Pertaining to a device, process, or channel involved in the reception of data by a computer or by any of its components. (2) (ANSI) An input state, or a sequence of states.
INPUT-OUTPUT (I/O). (1) (ANSI) Pertaining to input, output, or both.
INSERT. (1) (ANSI) To introduce data between previously stored items of data. (2) (ANSI) In text processing, to introduce new characters or text within previously recorded text. The text is automatically rearranged to accommodate the addition.
INSTRUCTION. (ANSI/ISO) In a programming language, any expression that specifies one operation and identifies its operands, if any.
INSTRUCTION SET. (ANSI/ISO) The set of the instructions of a computer, of a programming language, or of the programming languages in a programming system.
INTERFACE. (1) (ANSI/ISO) A shared boundary between two functional units, defined by functional characteristics, common physical interconnection characteristics, signal characteristics, and other characteristics, as appropriate. The concept involves the specification of the connection of two devices having differnet functions. (2) (ANSI) A point of communication between two or more processes, persons, or other physical entities.
INTERNAL SORT. (1) (ANSI) A sort performed within internal storage. (2) (ANSI) A sort program or a sort phase that sorts two or more items within main storage.
INTEROPERABILITY. (1) (ANSI) The capability of two or more systems to exchange and use information. (2) The ability to communicate across previously incompatible aggregations of hardware and software with a minimum of human intervention. It is usually achieved by specialized tools placed at network junctures. Interoperability has proven to be an achievable tool.
INTERPRETER. (1) (ANSI/ISO) A computer program used to interpret. Syn: interpretive program. (2) (ANSI/ISO) A device that prints on a punched card the characters corresponding to hole patterns punched in the card.
INTERRUPT. (ANSI/ISO) A suspension of a process, such as the execution of a computer program, caused by an event external to that process, and performed in such a way that the process can be resumed. Syn: interruption.
I/O. (See INPUT-OUTPUT.)
IPL. (See INITIAL PROGRAM LOADER.)
ISO. (ANSI) The International Organization for Standardization
ITERATIVE OPERATION. (ANSI/ISO) The repetition of the algorithm for the solution of a set of equations with successive combinations of initial conditions or other parameters; each successive combination is selected by a subsidiary computation based on a predetermined set of iteration rules. Iterative operation is usually used to permit solution of boundary value problems or for automatic optimization of system parameters. Syn: automatic sequential operation.
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